Saturday, August 31, 2019
Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥â¬Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ °Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ §Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¢Ã ¤âÃ ¤â" Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë, Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¡Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥ËÃ ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë, Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤Ë Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ® Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤âºÃ ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤ Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¡Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ² Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¥ ¤ Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¤ ªÃ ¥â¬Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ °Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯, Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë, Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ «Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ¦ Ã ¤ Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë, Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥ËÃ ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤ ¡Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤âÃ ¤â" Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¥Å'Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ® Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¢Ã ¤ ¼Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤â"Ã ¤Ë Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤âºÃ ¥â¬ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ «Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ µÃ ¥â¡ Ã ¤ Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤âºÃ ¥â¬ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¢Ã ¤ ¼Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤â"Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤âÃ ¤â"Ã ¥â¡Ã ¥ ¤ Ã ¤â¡Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ® Ã ¤ Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥â¹Ã ¤ °Ã ¥ Ã ¤Å¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¸ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¢Ã ¤ ¼Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤Ë Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤âºÃ ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥â¹Ã ¤ °Ã ¥ Ã ¤Å¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¸ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¢Ã ¤ ¼Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤Ë Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¨ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤âÃ ¥ ¤ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ® Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹ Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¤ ªÃ ¥â¬Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ °Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤âºÃ ¥â¡ Ã ¤ °Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ª Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹Ã ¥ ¤ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤âºÃ ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¥ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ °Ã ¥ Ã ¤ §Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤ Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ® Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¥ ¤ Ã ¤â¡Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¾, Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ °Ã ¥ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¥ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¯ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ §Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¨ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥Å'Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ° 12 Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° 13 Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¸ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ µÃ ¤â"Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ §Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â"Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤âºÃ ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë. Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ «Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ¦ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë. Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ® Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â. Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤âºÃ ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¨ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â. 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Ã ¤â °Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ £ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ , Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥ Ã ¤âº Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤ °Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ª Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¡ storybooks Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¢Ã ¤ ¼Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤Ë Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿ Ã ¤ µÃ ¥â¡ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¬ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ °Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ·Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾ Ã¢â¬â¹Ã¢â¬â¹Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤ Ã ¥â¬, Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¯ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë. Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¹ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ â¡ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¢Ã ¤ ¼Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ² Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë. Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥ Ã ¤âº Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥ËÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ µÃ ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ® Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â" Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿, Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤â" Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â. Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¨ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤âºÃ ¥â¬ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥Æ'Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤â ¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â. Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â, Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¨ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ²Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ËÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¡. Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ µÃ ¥â¡ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¨ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â, Ã ¤ µÃ ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë, Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥ËÃ ¤ ¸Ã ¥â ¡ Ã ¤ µÃ ¥â¡ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¨ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ °Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¸ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤âÃ Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¬ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â. Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¡Ã ¤ ¼Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ¹ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤ µÃ ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ §Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤â°Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ °. Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ µÃ ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤â Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¡Ã ¤ ¼Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë. Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¨ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ²Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥Æ'Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â. Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤âºÃ ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ «Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤â"Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ²Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â, Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ µÃ ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â. Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¨ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ °Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ·Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥Æ'Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â. Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¯ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë, Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤âºÃ ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ² Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤Å"Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ £Ã ¤ ¾,. Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ £ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ , Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤ §Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ®Ã ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨ Ã ¤âºÃ ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¡Ã ¤ ¼Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ® Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â. Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ §Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ §Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¥ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¸ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â. Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ² Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â¡Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â. Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ² Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë, Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤â"Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤Å" Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤âÃ ¤â"Ã ¥â¡. Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ¹ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¤ ¸Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ¬Ã ¤âÃ ¤ §Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤â Ã ¤â"Ã ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥âÃ ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿ Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ² Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ µÃ ¥â¬Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ¸ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¬ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â, Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ¹ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¸Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ µÃ ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ µÃ ¥Æ'Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¿ Ã ¤ Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë. Ã ¤â¡Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ¹ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ °Ã ¥ Ã ¤â" Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤âºÃ ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ² Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥ Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¥ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¸ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â, Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥âÃ ¤Å¸ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¦ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ² Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¾. Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥ Ã ¤ · Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤â"Ã ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¡ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë. Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ² Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¢Ã ¤ ¼Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤Ë Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ §Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ¦Ã ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â" Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¾, Ã ¤ ²Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¨ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ² Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤Ë Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ® Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤â"Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ² Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ §Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ² Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤â" Ã ¤ ²Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤ Ã ¤â ¢ Ã ¤ Ã ¥ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤âÃ ¤â"Ã ¥â¡. Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¥Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ² Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â, Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¡Ã ¤ ¼Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ¸ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¤ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ °Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ °Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤Ë Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ² Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥ËÃ ¤â Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â, Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥ Ã ¤Å¡Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë. Ã ¤â¦Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¤ ·Ã ¥ Ã ¤Å¸ Ã ¤ ªÃ ¥ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ µ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤Å¡, Ã ¤â Ã ¤ ª Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤âÃ ¤Å¡Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥Å'Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ ² Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ «Ã ¥â¬ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥ Ã ¤ §Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ²Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¾. Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥Æ'Ã ¤ ·Ã ¥ Ã ¤Å¸Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ £, Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¥Æ'Ã ¤ ·Ã ¥ Ã ¤Å¸Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤ £ Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ µÃ ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤â¢ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¾. Ã ¤â°Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ¨Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥âÃ ¤ ²Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¯ Ã ¤ °Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ¶Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¹ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¹ Ã ¤ ¬Ã ¤ ¨ Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤âÃ ¤ ° Ã ¤Å"Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¥â¡Ã ¤ ¦Ã ¤ ¾Ã ¤ ° Ã ¤ µÃ ¥ Ã ¤ ¯Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥ Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¤ ¿ Ã ¤â¢Ã ¥â¡ Ã ¤ ²Ã ¤ ¿Ã ¤ Ã ¤ ®Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¤ ¤Ã ¥ Ã ¤ µÃ ¤ ªÃ ¥âÃ ¤ °Ã ¥ Ã ¤ £ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥Ë Ã ¤â¢Ã ¤ ¿ Ã ¤ ¸Ã ¥â¬Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¨Ã ¤ ¾ Ã ¤ ¹Ã ¥â¹Ã ¤â"Ã ¤ ¾. t is more beneficial than harmful Peer pressure is not always bad. It can help you reflect on yourself. Peers may teach you good things and encourage you to follow them. Looking at what others do, can help you bring a positive change in your way of thinking. If you can pick selectively, peer pressure can push you towards something positive. For example, when a child knows that some of his friends regularly read storybooks or that they haveÃ subscribed to a library, even he feels tempted to do so. He may get into the habit of reading because of his peers. Seeing that some of your friends exercise daily, even you may take up the habit. Positive peer pressure can lead you to adopt good habits in life. Your peers, their choices and ways of life give you a glimpse of the world outside the four walls of your house. What they think about things in life, how they perceive situations, how they react in different circumstances can actually expose you to the world around. Being part of a larger group of peers exposes you to the diversity in human behavior. This makes you reflect on your behavior and know where you stand. Peer pressure can lead you to make right choices in life. If you are fortunate enough to get a good peer group, your peers can influence the shaping of your personality in a positive way. Their perspective of life can lead you to change yours. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not pressure every time; sometimes itÃ¢â¬â¢s inspiration, which makes you change for good. For example, positive peer pressure can make you quit smoking or give up bad habits that you may have. Your peers can inspire you to become more optimistic or more confident. Your peers may influence you to change and make you a better human being. If the peer group happens to be in school, you will discover a lot of positive changes happening in your teenager. Since the urge to Ã¢â¬ËbelongÃ¢â¬â¢ to a peer group is all about feeling included and accepted, there is also this natural tendency to behave and become Ã¢â¬ËlikeÃ¢â¬â¢ other members of a peer group. Therefore when the members of the peer group believe in doing well in class and doing their regular lessons with care, you will find your child also following suit. The direct effect can be observed in the grades. The teenager will not only learn to focus on his studies but will also show an inclination in getting involved and participating is several extra-curricular and sports activities in school. Whether the peer group comprises of school friends, neighborhood friends or cousins of an extended family, the effect can always be seen on your child. Amongst the other apparent effects, you will find that the communication skills of the teen improving significantly. His approach, attitude and behavior will always be positive. He will learn to value relationships and will learn that it is important to become and responsible individual. Pure s peer pressure beneficial or harmful. Opening statement: My point of view on this subject area is simple and straightforward; peer pressure can be beneficial. Facts and supporting evidence: 1. Peer pressure can be beneficial because it can help you achieve things in life. For example: YouÃ¢â¬â¢re about to audition for something thatÃ¢â¬â¢s been your dream forever, then you all of a sudden get too scared so you decide your not going, but then your friend pressures you into doing it. And because of your friend giving you peer pressure, you achieved your goals, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ve succeeded. Without this type of peer pressure not many people would be successful in our world. 2. It can also be beneficial because it can help you get out of bad habits. Peer pressure is very well known for getting people into drugs, but nobody ever thought about peer pressure getting you out of them, and peer pressure can get you out of many habits. Last year I used to be lateÃ¢â¬ ¦ A lot, but then my mom pressured me into getting up earlier in the morning, and getting ready faster. If it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t for her, I would not be a good student. 3. Peer pressure can lead you to making the right choices. Say youÃ¢â¬â¢re in a bad situation your friend wants you to do something that you really donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel like doing, so you talk to your other friend, they also think the idea is bad. So he/she pressures you to not do it, later on you somehow find out that your friend was setting you up, if your friend didnÃ¢â¬â¢t help you in that situation, you had the chances of ending up in jail or being dead. Facts: 89.5% of the teens in high schools havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been pressured into trying cocaine 80% of teenagers havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been pressured into trying a cigarette Peer pressure can even start at kindergarten Closing: I know peer pressure can also be harmful, but many people donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize how beneficial it can be. When people hear the words Ã¢â¬Å"Peer PressureÃ¢â¬ usually the first thing they think is peer pressure involving drugs, and that can happen too, but there are many ways of good peer pressure. My personal motto is: CHOOSE YOUR FRIENDS WISELY! See, first of all i would like to mention that, a fact which clearly reports that there are approximately more benifits than harms of peer pressur. Also it have an appropriate reason:- In our Society, there are more good citizen than bad ones. People mostly have good friend cirlce, than having bad friend circle. Yes there are some bad groups, which involves drug case, robbery etc. But the Fact is clear that there are less cases in which a person gets harm due to peer pressure. Good friends persuade us to do good thing, even we too advise our friends to do good things. I agree with 1st argument with my support. What he/she said is true. People when hear this word Ã¢â¬ Peer PressureÃ¢â¬ they usually thinks of situation involving drugs robbery etc. But As i said , there much more benifits than harms.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Haroun and the Sea of Stories is a magical realism novel in which elements of Salman RushdieÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination are put together to demonstrate the importance and significance of storytelling. Through the story, Rushdie conveys to the reader what his notion of good story elements are. One of these elements is a storyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to possess antithetical relationships. Haroun and the Sea of Stories contains many symbols alluding to the value of complementary elements of a story; these symbols also being a representation of these values in life.One of the initial contrasts we encounter is in Rashid KhalifaÃ¢â¬â¢s two titles. Those who are opposed to his story telling have bestowed upon him the name, Ã¢â¬Å"The Shah of Blah. Ã¢â¬ The others, who enjoy RashidÃ¢â¬â¢s stories, refer to him as Ã¢â¬Å"The Ocean of Notions. Ã¢â¬ (13) The less flattering of the two titles denotes disdain for Rashid because of the belief that he is a man who is a source of useless tales and endl ess revelry in his storytelling. The latter brings forth connotations of admiration of boundless imagination and creativity.Such dissimilarities are bound to occur with a man of RashidÃ¢â¬â¢s interest. These titles are fairy different, but they complement each other in a certain way that makes RashidÃ¢â¬â¢s character slightly more complex. If he was a character who was met with universal respect or contempt, then he would not be as dynamic, ergo less interesting. Another major aspect of the story that demonstrates this notion is the relationship between the Chupwalas and the Guppies.In the beginning each group had its own way of living, which they believed to be the most respectable. Then on page 191, after Khattam-Shud has been defeated the Guppies and the Chupwalas live together in a peace where Ã¢â¬Å"Night and Day, Speech and Silence, would no longer be separated into zones by Twilight Strips and Walls of Force. Ã¢â¬ Prior to this, each group was a sovereign entity, keepi ng to their traditions without much success. Then, when the barriers were broken, they were able to appreciate each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s corresponding differences.The light and dark as well as the silence and the speech accompanied each other and made for a more vibrant society. Through examples like these, Salman Rushdie was able to portray the value of antithetical elements in stories. His examples showed that opposing ideas can fuse sometimes and create a more diverse concept. RashidÃ¢â¬â¢s names showed that he was a very imaginative story teller, but sometimes he was not aware of how people could view his perception of reality and this creates a multifaceted character in which people can show more interest.The relationship between the guppies and the chupwalas was an illustration of the harmonization of two juxtaposing concepts and how different ideologies come together to create a much more fascinating society. All of these models can be carried over to the world of storytelling, w here the story is much more entertaining when there is a slew of events that are totally different in occurrence and tone, but these events make for great amusement.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
A Detailed Guide On Making Atole How to make Atole It was a cold day during winter break, and I was trying to catch up on my favourite show Pretty Little Liars. I was sitting in the living room and then a hot milky scent wafting from the kitchen hit me. I remember thinking that there was nothing better than a hot drink for this cold weather. I was very excited and headed straight for the kitchen. Hands holding on the edge of the doorway, peeping my head into the room, I saw my host mother making a hot beverage, and she offered me some. At first, I only tried a little bit, but then I had another sip, another one, and another one, until everything was gone. At that moment, I realized how much I liked the drink and that I would definitely need it to survive the upcoming winter days. I later found out that it was a Mexican drink called Atole. Since I was only able to enjoy the drink if someone made it for me, I decided to learn how to make it myself, which turned out to be relatively easy. There are two main stages to make this drink; th ey are buying the ingredients and then combining them to make the beverage. Before going into the instructions, it might beneficial to learn some background information about Atole. Atole is a traditional Mexican drink originating from pre-Columbian time and usually served at Dias de los muertos celebrations, which is translated as Ã¢â¬Å"Day of the DeadÃ¢â¬ . In Mexico, the hot thickened drink is typically made with cornmeal, water, raw sugar cane, cinnamon, and vanilla. It can also be served for breakfast on regular days or as a drink in the afternoon and late evening in place of tea, hot chocolate or coffee. With different brands, there is a wide variety of Atole flavors to choose from such as walnut, coconut, strawberry, guava, and chocolate. The only brand I had was Klass, but then I like the drink so much that I tried all their flavors and found out that walnut Atole is my favourite, which I would highly recommend to anyone. To make Klass Atole, I have to buy a package of Atole powder. Klass Atole can be found easily in grocery stores in South Texas or Northern Mexico; however, since I do not live there anymore, I have to order them online and sometimes they do not even have walnut flavor. Other than the package, the main materials needed for the process are sugar, milk, a medium-size saucepan or stockpot, a ladle, a glass or a mug, a table spoon, and measuring cups. After gathering all the materials and ingredients, all I had to do was to follow the recipe and the drink would be ready in less than half an hour. First, I put five cups of milk into a saucepan or a stockpot. After, I put the saucepan of milk on the stove on medium-high heat until the milk started to boil, which often took ten minutes. Third, while waiting for the milk to boil, I put one cup of milk into a glass or a mug and poured the entire Atole package into the container and stirred the mixture. Next, when the milk started to boil, I turned down the fire to low heat, poured the mixture into the saucepan and stirred it for one minute. Soon, I stirred about five to eight table spoons of sugar into the drink. Finally, I turned off the stove and poured out the drink into a mug and it was ready to serve. I suggest enjoying the drink with a spoon to make it easier to drink when it is still hot and delicious. As an international student who has traveled and tried new things in different parts of the United States, I have come to love Atole. I have not mastered and tried new things with Atole yet, but I am hoping to get better and better at it. It will always be a pleasure for me to introduce this appetizing drink to people all around the world.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Economic Indicator Forecast - Essay Example State of Oregon projects that GDP will fall by 2.6% a rate that is not alarming in the short run given the resilience the economy has shown. Unemployment rate: Projections for unemployment (% of the labor force) are that the rate will be 5.2%. This is higher than the 4.7 % given by the Office of economic analysis (State of Oregon). The forecast is based on the fact that productivity growth rate has remained weak since 2004 GDP Deflator. IMF projects the figures for this indicator to be 2.0%. This is same as the figure given by the office of economic analysis Current account balance (% of GDP) IMF says that current account balance will decrease by 6.1% while the Office of economic analysis (State of Oregon) give their forecast as 5.0% this is attributed to the performance of the import market that will be adversely affected by the upward moving interest rates. Oil prices. Due to geopolitical factors namely volatility in the Middle East, and increasing demand especially in emerging mar kets, oil prices are set to remain high with both IMF and office of economic analysis agreeing on their projections that prices for the next quarter will be in the upward of $54 per barrel. Consumer price index (CPI). According to IMF, CPI will be 2.4% while the Office of economic analysis (State of Oregon) projects a 2.6% change. The rising cost of energy is among the factors that will influence this trend
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Sports Governance - Essay Example athletes (USOC, 2015b). For instance, the USOC purposely created its Ã¢â¬Å"Sports Medicine DivisionÃ¢â¬ in order to support the physiological needs of the athletes in case of any serious physical injury (i.e. chiropractors and physical therapists) (USOC, 2015c). To support the learning and training needs of the athletes, the USOC purposely created its Ã¢â¬Å"Coaching Education DepartmentÃ¢â¬ (USOC, 2015d). Today, USOC managed to establish a total of 17 training sites throughout 15 states in the United States on top of its 3 major training centers located in Chula Vista in California, Colorado Springs in Colorado, and Lake Placid in New York (USOC, 2015e; USOC, 2015g). To ensure that the efforts of USOC would pay off, this particular organization has decided to shift its focus from rewarding the active participation of athletes to those who can win medal (Smolianov, Zakus, & Gallo, 2014, p. 37). People at USOC are strongly encouraged to behave with integrity and practice creative thinking as they seek to inspire all athletes to give out their best performance in international sports games and competition (USOC, 2015f). Organizational structure clearly shows how certain tasks or activities are allocated, coordinated, and supervised within a given organization (Pugh, 1990). Often times, the process of examining the organizational structure of USOC is considered important since it can provide us a better understanding about the organizational leadership and behavior (Chance, 2009, p. 11). As of 2015, below is the official organizational structure of USOC: In terms of hierarchy, organizational structure can be classified as either Ã¢â¬Å"tallÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"flatÃ¢â¬ (Gupta, Gollakota, & Srinivasan, 2007, p. 250). Based on the chart presented on page 3, the organizational structure of USOC seems to be Ã¢â¬Å"flatÃ¢â¬ . It means that only the leader of the 14 major departments report directly to the CEO. Basically,
Monday, August 26, 2019
Research paper - Essay Example Hence I chose to explore about health issues in adulthood. This is a vast topic and to discuss it is beyond the scope of this essay. Hence I chose to discuss a particular health related issue based on my personal experience. Recently, I was staying with my 55 year old aunt and her 60 year old husband during a short holiday. Though my aunts over all health appeared good, she was taking many pills for diabetes and high blood pressure. My uncle had no such problems and he was an active man. My aunt appeared obese and was not active. She would watch lot of television and would prefer not to move out of the house. One night, my uncle woke me up and told me that my aunt was sweating profusely and was having difficulty in breathing. He was in panic and did not know what to do. Even I did not have any experience in handling such situations. However, I called the emergency number and asked for help. Within 5 minutes a team of health professionals arrived and shifted my aunt to the hospital. In the hospital, me and my uncle were told that my aunt suffered from heart attack and any delay in shifting her to the hospital would have cost her life. My aunt was kept in the cardiac intensive care unit for a few days whe re many tests were done. Based on the reports of these tests, a procedure called cardiac catheterization was done. A few days later, she was discharged home. I am thankful to God and the team of doctors for keeping my aunt alive. This episode has a lasting impact in my mind. I have heard of many people suffering from heart attacks. But I visualized this heart attack. This episode made me do a little research on the subject. What I was most interested is What causes heart attack, how can it be prevented and how to identify it? Cardiovascular diseases are diseases and injuries of the heart and the blood vessels of the body. According to the WHO (2009), globally, cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death. In the year 2005, it was estimated
Handling Conflict - Essay Example It has been noted that the more optimism on the top management team leads to cooperation among workmate. Working together leads to better company results. Good leaders never lose sight of the ultimate goal, and focus all their energy on short-term objectives. When a leader fails to focus his/her attention on the short-term goals, the organization fails because of the imminent lack of momentum to reach the long-term goals that would ensure its survival. Leading with passion helps maintain the vision because when a person does something because he likes doing it. It becomes so easy to accomplish tasks (Perkins, Holtman, Kessler, & McCarthy, 2000). When a leader proves to be too nice to his subjects, the result is a lack of unity and respect. Therefore, the team he is working with performs poorly (Perkins, Holtman, Kessler, & McCarthy, 2000). The leader focuses the setting of the goals on the strength of his team. Focusing goals on strengths ensures that the goals are achieved. Lack of mentors and coaches makes the team inexperienced. A good relationship acts as the foundation of the company. Perkins, D. N., Holtman, M. P., Kessler, P. R., & McCarthy, C. (2000). Leading at the Edge: Leadership Lessons from the Extraordinary Saga of Shackletons Antarctic Expedition. New York: AMACOM Div American Mgmt
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Cyber Security - Essay Example In a computing context, the word security is used to denote cyber security. Effective cyber security employs coordinated efforts throughout the information system. Some of the major elements of cyber security include end-user education, application security, disaster recovery/ business continuity planning, network security and information security (Marshall, 85). World governments devote huge sums of their annual budgets towards enhancing cyber security with the United States in particular, since 2010 allocating over 13 million USD annually for the next 5 years to cyber security. The traditional way of ensuring cyber security has been to dedicate most of the effort and resources on the most crucial system components in attempts to keep in check the biggest known threats while partly neglecting some less important system components. However, this method has proved greatly insufficient especially in the age of the rapidly and constantly changing nature of security risks. Most cyber security measures are now embracing guidelines in their risk assessment framework that recommends a shift towards continuous monitoring and real-time assessments (Singer and Allan,
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Nuclear Arms Race - Part 2 - Assignment Example As the time passed by, the world observes technological advancements and the scientific technology also experienced a boom in their inventions, innovations, and advancements, which evolved the phenomenon of nuclear weapons. Thus, they became likely to be potential and sustained their growth through the nuclear guns, missiles and other weaponries until the beginning of the twenty first century (Lambers, 2006). The cold war between U.S. and USSR contributed to substantial, immense, and drastic crash and collision to the political, cultural, and technological aspects of these countries as both of them made efforts and techniques consecutively that prohibited each other from getting hold on to the nuclear power domination. Although, the nuclear arms and weapons are environment friendly when involved in the development process, yet it accompanies colossal damage to the environment when used in wars or other terrorist activities. The nuclear war not only results in the overwhelming and det eriorating impacts to the environment but at the same time thousands of people also come under the calamitous effects of the nuclear war (Siracusa, 2008). The wealth and funds that come under spending on the production and manufacturing of nuclear arms and weapons has been under many arguable and disputable discussions and dialogues in the recent times. According to the pieces of information, there are adequate amount of nuclear weapons available with the super powers, even though, the countries are continuously in the process of trading the nuclear weapons. The capital spent and the financing provided to the nuclear armaments and artillery must come under close observations by the governments of the countries, as they are the foremost and key source of mammoth obliteration and leaves an indelible imprint on the societies and its inhabitants (Schwartz, 1998). The immediate impacts of the nuclear wars and weapons evidence the loss of innumerable lives of the people at once, as when t he explosion hits a portion of land, it kills the nearby people on a large scale on abrupt basis. However, the nuclear arms and ammunitions make shocking, disturbing, and distressing long-term impacts on the environment, as the explosions are the one chief source of origin that is evident to the global warming. The increasing global warming is eventually making the lives of the human race miserable (Goldstein, 2009). One of the consequences of the nuclear weapons was that it involved a huge amount of money and capital for the research and development process as the innovation and advancement in technology made the research more expensive with the use of sophisticated and complicated equipments and machineries. The technological advancement and expansion, the actions and events involved in the process of nuclear arm building and manufacturing should not be adequate to avoid in the long term. One of the major consequences and risks that the human populace suffers from is the eye burns and impairments due to the reason that the discharge and emission of the heat energy in the form of dangerous ultraviolet light from the nuclear weapons causes intense harm to eyes. The eye damage can be in the form of flash blindness that is on provisional and short-term basis as it causes sightlessness and remains for a span of time. The retina is vulnerable to certain type and
Friday, August 23, 2019
E-Sport is a Real Sport Annotated Bibliography Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
E-Sport is a Real Sport - Annotated Bibliography Example This article explores the advent of the internet protocol television and how it relates to e-sports. It focuses on StarCraft 2 and discusses how they use internet protocol television as a means to quickly distribute content. The arguments presented in the paper concur with the idea that e-sport is an innovative activity that heavily relies on new technology, besides being an activity that is fully amerced in the virtual world. In relation to my thesis, this article shows that E-sport can be played online and have an audience. This article explores the question as to whether e-sport is a sport. Additionally, it discusses the play and bonuses that players receive from sponsors. In this article, the play and bonuses are compared to e-sport in the virtual world and doping in the real world sports. The similarities in structures in games and other mediums are also discussed, particularly the appearance of sports managers for each player. Besides, a setup of the development of e-sport is provided in the article. This is useful in understanding the origin and development of e-sport. Importantly, the article tries to explore the problem by giving a clear and inclusive definition of sport. It argues that the efforts to define sport failÃ to cover the full concept that ought to be involved in the definition of sport (Mora& Stephane, 2003). This is, therefore, a significant topic for e-sport since the industry has experienced a lot of opposition by referring to themselves as e-sports. Under the ideas presented in this article, e-sport would inevitably be considered a sport and any argument raised against it would be deemed invalid. Although this does not fully resolve the issue, it provides a significant support not only for e-sports but also for other industries that would like to be considered sports.Ã Ã
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior Essay In the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Why Chinese mothers are Superior, Chua describes her efforts to give her children what she describes as a traditional, strict Ã¢â¬Å"ChineseÃ¢â¬ upbringing. ] This piece was controversial. Many readers missed the supposed irony and self-deprecating humor in the title and the piece itself and instead believed that Chua was advocating the Ã¢â¬Å"superiorityÃ¢â¬ of a particular, very strict, ethnically defined approach to parenting. In fact Chua has stated that the book was not a how-to manual but a self-mocking memoir. In any case, Chua defines Ã¢â¬Å"Chinese motherÃ¢â¬ loosely to include parents of other ethnicities who practice traditional, strict child-rearing, while also acknowledging that Ã¢â¬Å"Western parents come in all varieties,Ã¢â¬ and not all ethnically Chinese parents practice strict child-rearing. Chua also reported that in one study of 48 Chinese immigrant mothers, the vast majority said that they believe their children can be the best students, that academic achievement reflects successful parenting, and that if children did not excel at school then there was a problem and parents were not doing their job. Chua contrasts them with the view she labels Ã¢â¬Å"WesternÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â that a childÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem is paramount Amy makes it clear that the Asian kids are not born smart (For the most part, at least) It is hard work and training from the parents that shapes the children into these wonder kids. To prove her point she lists up a number of things that her daughter were never allowed to do, such as: * Have a play date * Watch television or play computer games * Attend a school play * Complain about not in a school play And so on.. Prohibitions that seems totally unreasonable for us Ã¢â¬Å"westernsÃ¢â¬ , as she loosely has named us. Throughout the text she covers several perspectives on parenting, which of a few I surprisingly agree on. Most of her viewpoints I deeply disagree with though and is far from my idea about proper parenting. Each time she lists up one of her perspectives, she compares the Chinese perspective with the Western perspective. She does this in a very subjective manner I think. She is very clever rhetorically. At some parts of the text, I actually caught my self being very close to getting dragged towards her side. I found it quite amusing to feel the power of pathos, but at the same time a bit daunting. According to Amy, the main difference between Chinese parents and Western parents is the way they see their children. Western parents believe that respecting their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s choices, their individuality and always encouraging them to pursue their true passions is the way. In contrast, Chinese parents believe that preparing their children for the future, and..
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
War in Central America Essay Central America is the southernmost part of the North American continent. It lies south south of Mexico and form the land connection with South America. Central America is commonly defined as including Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The total land area is roughly 200,000 square miles (518, 000 km2), about three-fourths that of Texas. Central America is long and narrow, tapering to a width of barely 30 miles (48km) in parts of Panama. On the east is the Caribbean Sea, on the west, the Pacific Ocean. Both coasts are deeply indented in places, and offshore islands are numerous, especially in the Caribbean. The land is mostly mountainous, with scattered active volcanoes. Except for the coastal plains, which are narrow in most places, there is little flat land (Woodward, 1999). In the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s, there was unrest in several Central American countries. The United States intervened militarily in the region several times to restore order and protect its interests. After World War II, most Central American countries had dictatorial governments. In 1951, the Organization of Central American States was formed to promote economic and cultural cooperation among the countries. One of its achievements was the creation of the Central American Market in 1960. Cooperation began to break down, however, when national antagonists started to resurface in the late 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. Many of the countries experienced violence between the left- and right- wing political factions, as well as guerrilla insurgencies, inflation, and foreign debt (Woodward, 1999). Political turmoil increased in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. NicaraguaÃ¢â¬â¢s government was controlled by a leftist group called the Sandinistas, which restricted political freedom in Nicaragua and was accused of supporting a strong Communist insurgency in El Salvador. The United States began giving aids to rebels called contras, who were trying to overthrow the Sandinista regime. There were also abuses of human rights and restrictions of political freedom in other countries in the region. In 1987, the governments of El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica signed an agreement designed to end the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s civil wars and foster democracy. The author of the agreement, Costa Rican president Oscar Arias, received the Nobel Peace Prize (Woodward, 1999). This paper discusses and compares two countries of Central America, Guatemala and Panama, focusing on the challenges for democratic consolidation and economic development. II. Background A. Guatemala Guatemala or republic of Guatemala is an independent country of Central America. Its borders Mexico, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador and lies between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Guatemala has an area of 42, 042 square miles. Maximum distances are roughly 280 miles north-south and 250 miles east-west. Narrow lowlands run along the pacific and Atlantic coasts. Between them lie the highlands, covering about half of the country. Dominant features are mountains, volcanoes, high plateaus, broad basins, and many valleys. Forests are one of GuatemalaÃ¢â¬â¢s richest resources. The Atlantic lowland and the Peten are largely covered by tropical rain forests. Savannas predominate along the drier pacific coast. The highlands are covered by grasslands and forests that are deciduous at low elevations and coniferous higher up. B. Panama Panama or Panama City or Republic of Panama is a city and the capital of the republic. It is on the bay of Panama at the Pacific end of the Panama Canal, 38 miles southeast of Colon on the Atlantic. The cityÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is largely supported by the canal and by tourists. Products include furniture, beer, handicrafts, and clothing. Panama is a hilly country crossed by several mountain ranges, the highest of which are in the west. Near the Costa Rican border is Volcan Baru, an extinct volcano rising 11, 401 feet above sea level. III. Discussion A. Guatemala Ã¢â¬ ¢ Government Under the constitution of 1985, which went into effect in 1986, Guatemala is a republic governed by a president and one-chamber Congress, both elected for four years popular vote. A council of ministers is appointed by the president. The judiciary is headed by a nine-member into 23 administrative departments. Voting is mandatory for all literate citizens age is 18 or over (Grandin, 2000). Ã¢â¬ ¢ History The Maya Indians inhabited Guatemala as early as 2400 B. C. They developed an advanced civilization and flourished there, but declined after 900 A. D. In the 16th century, the Mayas were subdued by Spaniards under Pedro de Alvarado. He governed the captaincy general of Guatemala, which included all Central America except Panama. For nearly three centuries the region was under Spanish rule (Lovell, 2002). In 1821, the five provinces making up captaincy general of Guatemala declared their independence, but the next year they became part of the New Mexico Empire under Agustin de Iturbide. When Iturbide was driven from power in 1823, the province gained independence as a confederation called the united provinces of Central America. During 1838-39, the confederation collapsed. Guatemala became an independent state in 1839 (Grandin, 2000). Rafael Carrera, leader of the conservative forces that helped to bring about dissolution of the confederation, made himself president of Guatemala in 1844 ands became the dominant political figure in Central America. In 1854, he was made president for life. He died in 1865. Vicente Cerna, one of CarreraÃ¢â¬â¢s generals, succeeded him as president but was overthrown in 1871. General Justo Rufino Barrios, a liberal, came to power in 1873, and the nation made economic progress under his rule. He was killed in 1885 in a war with El Salvador, while attempting to set up a union of Central American states. In 1898, Manuel Estrada Cabrera became president. In 20th century, Estrada Cabrera ruled as a despot for 22 years. He favored the wealthy classes and encouraged industrial development. He was overthrown in 1920. Relative order prevailed until 1930, when economic depression led to another uprising. In 1931, General Jorge Ubico came to power. Under his dictatorship, order was maintained and economic stability restored. In 1944 an alliance of students, liberals, and dissident members of the army forced Ubico out of office and seized control of the country. Many social and economic reforms were introduced by presidents Juan Jose Arevalo and Jacobo Arbenz Guzman. During their presidencies, Communist influence in the government began to grow. When Arbenz instituted land reforms and encouraged the growth of labor unions, his opponents claimed that he was under Communist control. The army, with covert aid from the United States, overthrew Arbenz in 1954 and outlawed the Communist party. Two corrupt and largely ineffective military dictatorships followed (Grandin, 2000). In 1963, Colonel Enrique Peralta Azurdia led a successful revolt. He governed by decree, but promised to hold elections after a new constitution was enacted. The constitution took effect in 1965 and a civilian government was elected. In attempted economic and social reforms, but its programs were blocked by resistance from conservative businessmen and wealthy landowners. Reform was also delayed by a civil war that raged for several years between Communist guerrillas and the army. Both sides used terrorism, including assassinations and kidnappings. In the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s a series of conservative military governments held power and suppressed the insurgents. A presidential election was held in 1982. Soon after, the government was overthrown by the army, whose leaders promised a return to democracy. A new constitution was approved in 1985, and later that year Marco Vinicio Cerezo was elected president. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Economy GuatemalaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is still in an early stage of development. Private enterprise prevails; government regulation is negligible. A small group controls most of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth, while the vast majority of the people, especially the Indians, live in extreme poverty. Guatemala is largely an agricultural country, one favored by a diverse climate and rich soils, especially the volcanic soils of the highlands. Peasant landholdings are usually small and crudely worked, but provide a livelihood, at the subsistence level, for most of the people. Corn and beans are the main crops. In contrast, commercial plantations specialize in export crops and are generally large, modern, and owned. Coffee is the leading export; cotton ranks second. Bananas, sugar, and meat are also significant exports. Livestock consists mainly of beef cattle, sheep, and pigs (Grandin, 2000). B. Panama Ã¢â¬ ¢ Government Under the constitution of 1972, and later amendments, Panama is a republic. The president, assisted by a cabinet, exercises executive power. He is elected by popular vote to a five-year term and may not serve consecutive terms. The legislature consists of the National Legislative Council (the upper house). Members of both houses are popularly elected. Assembly members serve four-year terms; Council members serve for six years. The judiciary is headed by a supreme court of nine justices, appointed by the president for 10-year terms. Each of the nine provinces is headed by an appointed governor and is divided into municipal districts. Panama has a military force known as the National Defense Force (Hedrick, 2000). Ã¢â¬ ¢ History The Caribbean coast of Panama was explored by a Spanish expedition under Rodrigo de Bastidas about 1500. The region was inhabited by several tribes of Indians, the Cuna being the largest. In 1502, Christopher Columbus sailed along the coast to the central part of the isthmus and claimed the area for Spain. The northern coast of Panama was the location of the first Spanish settlement on the mainland. In 1509, the Spanish government issued licenses to Alonso de Ojeda and Diego de Nicuesa to settle the regions explored by Bastidas and Columbus. The first colonies were established in 1510 at San Sebastian (on what is now the northern coast of Colombia) and Nombre de Dios. They did not flourish, however, because of disease, famine, and conflicts with the Indians. The first successful settlement, Santa Maria, was founded in 1510, when Vasco Nunez de Balboa convinced the settlers at San Sebastian to move to a new location on the west shore of the Gulf of Darien. The Indians at the new site were quickly subdued and Balboa became governor of the new colony. In 1513, balboa made his way across the isthmus and discovered the Pacific (Hedrick, 2000).
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Introduction To Safety And Hygiene Environmental Sciences Essay Nowdays, requested for food safety facility is increasingly demanding in hospitality line. The food safety facility is availability of safe food improves the health of people and is also important basic for human right. Every day people will get ill from the they eat when prepare the food or cooking without contain a good food safety facility. Normally, people get ill or food poison is because the microorganisms including baterial, viruses and moulds in the food, leading to a whole host of unpleasant symptoms, such as stomach pains, diarrhoea and vomiting. Contamination is the undesired presence of harmful microorganisms or substances in food. Food can be contaminated by unhygienic practices in storage, handling and preparation, and may compromise food safety and palatability, example have a good safety facility for the user. If microorganisms are allowed to multiply, this will have the potential to cause disease if the food is eaten. So, people must understanding and knowledge about the food safety facility to concerned the health risks, for example, need to meet the increasing demands for hygiene requirements and scale for the facility. This is a significant public health burden that can be largely preventable. Not only for our healthy, food safe facility also give due emphasis to good hygienic practices to prevent and control foodborne diseases. Foodborne diseases result from eating foods that contain infectious or toxic substances. As per organization, there is also considerable variation in expertise and resource between the different agencies, and a conflict between the need to protect public health and obligations to facilitate trade or develop an industry or business sector. You need to be aware of these potential difficulties with the food control system. This session will introduce the principles of food safety facility and consist about of floor, temperature, restrooms, ventilation, lighting, personal hygienic, cooking, keep food, waste disposal and equipment. Also learn about food control, food inspection and supportive enforcement measures that can contribute to food hygiene and safety of facility. MAIN BODY Floor About the flooring, as hospitality need to provide a hygienic flooring. The purpose of the hygienic flooring is to provide a healthy and environmentally friendly flooring choice for those who use it. Usually this type of flooring, helps resist mold and bacteria, but also reduces the amount of allergens can build, create better air quality. Others, the flooring must be clearning by daily with chemicals to reduce bacterial on the floor and require a smooth surface easy to clean up. Temperature As temperature, to ensure that the time effective temperature control is critical to the safety and suitability of food. Such control, including the received time and temperature for the process cooking, cooling, storage, packing, distribution, food service reached. Normally, a room as like kitchen must be always maintan the temperature become moderate. Wherever cooking is open with fire shall be provide the equipment like chimney, exhaust fan or ventilation to reducing smoke and steam, also can reduce the high temperature of the room. Lighting Adequate natural or artificial lighting should be provided to the food establishment, to commitment operate in a hygienic manner. Lighting must place appropriate protection, in order to ensure that the food is not damaged by pollution. Ventilation Ventilation is more important of the food safety facility it can process change or replace of any space in the indoor air quality, such like temperature control, supplemental oxygen, moisture, odor, smoke, heat, dust and air in the bacterial. Others, ventilation also can reduce activity of bacterial and also can obtain a protective effect like reduce food contamination by bacterial. So, all regarding of food safety ventilation shall be designed and constructed so that air can maintain circulation and air does not contaminate or affect the food. Restroom For the restroom shall be separate from the food processing and service areas, which may not be a direct result of the food production, service and storage areas. In restroom must have implemented a system for keeping records of all action taken to address identified risk factors for food-borne disease. These records should be preserved for the establishment and in the inspection process. Equipment As equipment must provide a display board mentioning dos donts for the workers should be put up inside a prominent place in the premise in English or in local language for everyones understanding. Display board also to ensure user have follow the instruction and understand how to use the equipment. As food safe facility, the owner must give training for the user to understanding the dangers from work equipment and how to handing the equipment like electrical equipment, fire prevention and other regarding for equipment. When the food process they will get injured any time if user use the equipment without any traning. Others, the equipment shall be have monthly inspection to ensure all the facility can be use without any damage, in addition it can extend life of the equipment. When need easily to maintanance and cleaning function as per its intended use, the eqiupment shall be such located, designed and fabricated, its also can facilitates a good hygiene practices inside the premise including monitoring and audit. Washing of Raw Materials The washed raw food, adequate facilities should be provided. All basins or other Facilities, used for washing food items must have sufficient heat and cold water supply. The water should be at least in the essence of drinking water. These facilities must be kept clean, Necessary to be disinfected. Used for washing a raw material of food flume should be maintained alone should not be used for washing dishes, or for any other purpose. Personal Facilities Personal facilities should include appropriate means appropriate washing and drying of hands before touching food materials including washbasins and supply hot water and separate lavatories of appropriate hygienic design. These facilities should be appropriate to the position, so that they do not open directly into the food processing, handling, or storage areas. Before user begin to perpare any food, make sure that user are using the utensils is clean. Clean worktops thoroughly and wash utensils with washing-up liquid and hot water, or use a dishwasher if user have one. Make sure user clean up any spilt food straight away. They should be made aware of the cleanliness requirement while handling food, if food processing without handled properly people fall ill and many died as a result of eating unsafe food. Storage of Food Proper storage of food reduces the risk of food poisoning. A well-stocked kitchen can be a lifesaver when it comes to pulling quick meals together and keeping our food intake healthy. To ensure your food is safe to eat, however, it is important to take proper care with how your food is stored. As storage of food has beware of the temperature danger zone because food poisoning bacterial grow and multiply fastest in the temperature danger zone between 5 C and 60 C. It is important to keep high-risk food out of this temperature zone. Other, some foods need to kept in the fridge to help stop baterial growing and the time limits for frozen foods are to maintain flavor and texture. It is also still safe to eat frozen foods that have been stored longer, example the storage of foods in fridge, meat, fish, fruit, and etc. CONCLUSION In conclusion, food safe facility is not just about maintaining a clean working environment, and non compliances can occur in any stage during the food handling process from receiving, storing, cooking, cooling and reheating, or serving. As a food safety the owner of restaurant or regarding the food processing shall be ensure a food-safe facility are in control and reduce the hazard of food poison. The food needs assessments were carried out in a professional way. A owner of restaurant they must give training and fully understanding the types of food and the conditions to prevent the growth of bacteria which can cause food poisoning for any employer and employee. In additional, provided the procedure and guideline for all restaurant to ensure food processing can provide the healthy food to the people and also provided the standard facility. So make sure all user implement adequate training, safety facility and monitoring procedures to keep working environment as safe as possible. BIBLIOGRAPHY Anonymous, 6th January 2012, Socia, viewed on 6th July 2012, http://www.fssai.gov.in/Portals/0/Training_Manual/Volume%20III-%20Food%20Regulatory%20Enforcement%20and%20complience%20through%20Inspection.pdf Food Safety http://www.bupa.co.uk/individuals/health-information/directory/f/food-hygiene#textBlock254403 http://www.virtual-college.co.uk/products/food-hygiene-catering.aspx http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/ahershkowitz/how_to_manage_food_waste.html http://extension.psu.edu/food-safety http://www.foodsafety.com/ http://www.sfdph.org/dph/eh/Food/default.asp http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/ INTRODUCTION The concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a system that helps food business operators look at how they handle food and introduces procedures to make sure the food produced is safe to eat. The HACCP system, which is science based and systematic, identifies specific hazards and measures for their control to ensure the safety of food. It is a HACCP which for focuses on keeping food in proper time and temperature zones and free of contamination, indentifies and controls potential problems in food handling before they can occur, evaluates and monitors each step in the entire food preparation process, works daily to provide feedback and eliminates or reduces risk of food borne illness. The HACCP is used for control risk and the hazard of food is biological, chemical, physical and allergenic. Biological is refer to organisms or organic matters produced by these organisms that are harmful to human healthy. These are include viruses, parasites, bacterial, fungi and protein. The harmful effects posed to human healthy by these biological hazards are mainly of three types infections, allergy and poisoning. A chemical hazard is any substance that can cause harm, primarily to people. Chemicals of all kinds are stored in our homes and can result in serious injuries if not properly handled. The Physical hazards are those substances which threaten a person physical safety. The most common types of physical hazards are raw ingredients, food packinging, building and equipment such as flahing paint, food handlers and the pets. As allergenic is a human immune system response to certain food. An allergenic reaction is triggered by a protein contained in a food. The type of food allergenic included milk, eggs, penuts, and fish. Allergenic symptoms are wheezing or breathing problems, stomach cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, rashes or sickness. To successfully carry out HACCP, food service operations will need to personalized HACCP plan. The plan is built a round 7 principles. This chapter will presents an introduction and overview of the 7 principles of HACCP. MAIN BODY Principle 1 Conduct a hazard analysis As food safety hazard is any biological, chemical or physical properties may result in food for human consumption is unsafe. The analyze hazards to identify any hazardous biological, chemical, or physical property in raw materials and processing steps, and assessment of their tune, and may lead to the consumption of food insecurity. All possible food safety hazards that could cause a product to be unsafe for consumption, and the measures that can be taken to control those hazards. For example, at the food processing step of the cooking, one of the identified hazards due to insufficient cooking time or temperature of the survival of pathogens. In additional, hazard got 7 step of analysis is hazards, risk, flow of food, type of customers, type of food, suppliers, the size type of operation. Principle 2 Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs) A CCP is a critical control point. It is a practice, preparation step, or procedure where a preventive measure or control can be applied. A CCP would prevented, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level. For example, a chicken arrives with salmonella. Cooking the chicken to an internal temperature of 170 F is a measured CCP and control measures are necessary to deal with the hazard of pathogens surviving the cooking process. Other is focus on time temperature and need to provide standard operating procedures (SOP). Principle 3 Establish critical limits The limit of the critical control point is to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable standards. Its maximum or minimum value, must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level of food safety hazards identified physical, biological or chemical hazards. For example, critical limits including products for cooking stage a lot of time and temperature. In addition shall be provide a food thermometer, tech employee or employer how to use them correctly and to ensure that employee use them on a regular basis. Principle 4 Establish a system to moniter control of the CCP Monitering is a planned sequence of observations or measurement to assess whether under the control of the critical control point to produce an accurate record for future use verification. Monitoring HACCP system is very important. If have lost control of the trend, therefore, it can take action to regain control of the process before more than the limit, the monitor can warn the plant. For example, monitoring critical control points in cooking procedures, including internal temperature with a special thermometer. Other, employees must be involved in the process and understand the critical control point. Record temperatures, cold, hot, cooking, chilling at each stage. Principle 5 Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is not under control These monitoring establishing a critical limit deviation the action to be taken. The final rule requires a plants HACCP plan to determine the corrective measures to be taken and if user do not meet a critical limit. The purpose of the corrective action is to ensure that the deviation is not harmful to health or otherwise adulterated products into the commercial. For example, if the internal temperature did not reach the required corrective action would require that the product is further cooking. The cooking temperature can not be achieved, alternative corrective measures will be required to be held and destruction. Other is employees must be involved in the process and understand. Principle 6 Establish procedures for verification to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively Validation is the application of methods, procedures, testing, sampling and evaluation of monitoring, to determine whether the control measures of the critical control points being or has been run as expected. Verification activities to ensure that the companys written HACCP plan monitoring and corrective action. Verify some examples at specified time interval the direct observation of the process of monitoring activities and corrective action monitoring instrument calibration. Other is keep record to prove the system is working effectively. Principle 7 Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application HACCP process and monitoring results to establish a record for keeping system file. This can be any simple and fast system such as the printing of the temperature from which critical control point, employees can record your own standards compliant. For example, employees of the plant is responsible for monitoring the cooking critical control points to complete the record sheet of cooking. This table includes the date, start and the end time temperature and the signture of the employee. If deviations occur in the production process responsible for the details of the plant employees deviation logbook records. CONCLUSION Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a way to keep food safe because it is through the mobile catering servise processes. It is based on the concept of preventing foodborne disease and to ensure safe food. HACCP plan is a particular food servise the development of a written document food safety procedures to be followed. Also HACCP system must be kept up to date, make revisions when changes occur. A change may be needed when recipes, suppliers, storage, preparation, or equipment changes, or when corrective actions are not working and employees need continuous training. Developed using the seven principles of HACCP plan and specific menu, facilities and equipment for the food service process, For a specific food on the menu, it describes the food safety program appropriate food processing and how the procedure will be monitored and recorded.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Rainbow Six The book starts with a prologue that introduces us to the one main character, John Clark, an ex-Navy SEAL, and two other characters, Alistair Stanley the executive commander of Rainbow Six, and Domingo (Ding) Chavez, the Captain of Team 2. There are two other insignificant character introduced, Clark's wife Sandy and his daughter Patsy, who is married to Ding. Patsy is pregnant. The other main character is Dmitriy Arkadeyevich Popov, he is an ex-KGB agent who is now working as a ^special consultant'. He will become very important later on in the book. Clark is the commander and in charge of starting a new European anti-terrorist group called Rainbow Six. Rainbow Six is split into two teams; Team 1 and Team 2. These teams are the best there is. They are based in Hereford, England, but any European country can call on them at any time. They run 3 miles in 20 minutes every morning at 6:00 am. Only one team will be on-call at a time. The team that is not on-call will be doing live fire practices. In the first 6 months of being in operation they are called on three times which is a lot for this type of thing. The first incident happens in a Swiss bank where terrorists have taken control. They also have hostages. Team 2 successfully takes them out, with only one hostage killed, but he is killed before they had gotten there. The first mission helps them organize themselves and fix a few holes in their planning. The second mission is in Germany. An international trader is taken hostage in his mansion/castle. This mission goes well too, thanks to the snipers. No hostage deaths, but all the terrorists are killed. After this mission is over they realize they should have a helicopter and pilot on the team, this is done. The last mission that they are called on in the book is in Spain, in a huge amusement park. Earlier on in the book we hear a conversation in a french high security jail, with the Jackal and his lawyer. The Jackal tells his lawyer he is sick of being in jail and to call his friends and they would know what to do. The terrorists at the amusement park are well prepared, but not well enough to take on the Rainbow Six team. They take 30 children hostage, and demand for the Jackal and several other prisoners release. One of the major things that goes awary for the terrorists is that the
Many of the traditional criminological theories focused more on biological, psychological and sociological explanations of crime rather than on the cost and benefits of crime. More conservative approaches, including routine actives, lifestyle exposure and opportunity theories have clearly incorporated crime rate patterns as a fundamental part of analyzing the economics of crime. Crime statistics are important for the simple reason that they help put theories into a logical perspective. For example, a prospective home owner may want to look at crime rates in areas of potential occupancy. On a more complex level, it helps law enforcement and legislators create effective crime reduction programs. Furthermore, it also helps these agencies determine if crime prevention programs, that have been in effect, have been successful. There are many factors that influence the rates of crime including socio economic status, geographical location, culture and other lifestyle factors. More specifical ly, Messner and Blau (1987) used routine activities theory to test the relationship between the indicators of leisure activities and the rate of serious crimes. They discussed two types of leisure actives, the first being a household pastime, which primarily focused on television watching. The second type was a non-household leisure event which was consisted of attendance to sporting events, cinemas, and entertainment districts. The focus of this paper will be to study the effects that substantial amounts of leisure activities have on the offender and the victim. Leisure activities not only make a crime more opportunistic for offenders, it may also provide offenders with motivation to engage in criminal activity. On the other hand, it may also be argue... ... such as walking in well lit areas, abstaining from areas know as Ã¢â¬Å"hot spotsÃ¢â¬ , and letting someone know your whereabouts, are suggested. Also, these individuals should be aware of the risks that come with certain types of activities. In conjunction to awareness, individuals should be involved in family leisure activities so that their idle hands do not become the devils workshop. Parents provide the primary foundation in the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s socialization; if this process is not effective or neglected the result could be detrimental. It may lead children to transition into adulthood without the fundamental skills that prevent the development of a criminal disposition. Now that routine activities theory has created a clear understanding of the economics of crime, letÃ¢â¬â¢s focus our research on which parenting methods could prevent criminality or crime before if ever develops.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Revenge in Hamlet Revenge causes the characters in Hamlet to act blindly through anger and emotion, rather than through reason. It is based on the principle of an eye for an eye; this action is not always the best means to an end. Fortinbras, Laertes, and Hamlet were all looking to avenge the deaths of their fathers. They all acted on emotion driven by the want for revenge for their father's deaths, and this led to the downfall of two, and the rise to power of one. Since the heads of the three major families were each murdered, the eldest sons of these families felt that they needed to take some kind of action to avenge their father's deaths; this need to bring honour to their respective families was ultimately the demise of Laertes and Hamlet. There were three major families in the tragedy of Hamlet. These were the family of King Fortinbras, the family of Polonius, and the family of King Hamlet. Fortinbras, King of Norway, was killed by King Hamlet; slain by sword during a man-to-man battle.Ã "...Lost by his father, with all bonds of law, to our most valiant brother."[Act 1, Scene 2; lines 24-25]. This entitled King Hamlet to the land that was possessed by Fortinbras because it was written in a seal'd compact. Polonius was an advisor to the King, and father to Laertes and Ophelia. He was nosy and arrogant, and he did not trust his children, and at one point in the play, using his daughter to probe Hamlet. Young Hamlet killed Polonius while he was secretly listening in on a conversation between Hamlet and his mother. "How now! A rat? Dead, for a ducat, dead!"[Act 3, Scene 4; Line 25].Ã King Hamlet was the King of Denmark, and Hamlet's father. He had killed King Fortinbras, only to be killed by his brother, Claudius. " ...My offence is rank, it smells to heaven; A brother's murder..." Each of these events affected the sons of the deceased in the same way. Laertes found out about his father's death, and immediately returned home. He confronted the King and accused him of the murder of his father. Claudius told Laertes that Hamlet was responsible for his father's death. He then decides to kill Hamlet to avenge the death of his father. He and Claudius concoct a plot to kill Hamlet. Hamlet dies of wounds from the poisoned tipped sword Laertes used. Revenge and Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet - Revenge in Hamlet :: The Tragedy of Hamlet Essays Revenge in Hamlet Revenge causes the characters in Hamlet to act blindly through anger and emotion, rather than through reason. It is based on the principle of an eye for an eye; this action is not always the best means to an end. Fortinbras, Laertes, and Hamlet were all looking to avenge the deaths of their fathers. They all acted on emotion driven by the want for revenge for their father's deaths, and this led to the downfall of two, and the rise to power of one. Since the heads of the three major families were each murdered, the eldest sons of these families felt that they needed to take some kind of action to avenge their father's deaths; this need to bring honour to their respective families was ultimately the demise of Laertes and Hamlet. There were three major families in the tragedy of Hamlet. These were the family of King Fortinbras, the family of Polonius, and the family of King Hamlet. Fortinbras, King of Norway, was killed by King Hamlet; slain by sword during a man-to-man battle.Ã "...Lost by his father, with all bonds of law, to our most valiant brother."[Act 1, Scene 2; lines 24-25]. This entitled King Hamlet to the land that was possessed by Fortinbras because it was written in a seal'd compact. Polonius was an advisor to the King, and father to Laertes and Ophelia. He was nosy and arrogant, and he did not trust his children, and at one point in the play, using his daughter to probe Hamlet. Young Hamlet killed Polonius while he was secretly listening in on a conversation between Hamlet and his mother. "How now! A rat? Dead, for a ducat, dead!"[Act 3, Scene 4; Line 25].Ã King Hamlet was the King of Denmark, and Hamlet's father. He had killed King Fortinbras, only to be killed by his brother, Claudius. " ...My offence is rank, it smells to heaven; A brother's murder..." Each of these events affected the sons of the deceased in the same way. Laertes found out about his father's death, and immediately returned home. He confronted the King and accused him of the murder of his father. Claudius told Laertes that Hamlet was responsible for his father's death. He then decides to kill Hamlet to avenge the death of his father. He and Claudius concoct a plot to kill Hamlet. Hamlet dies of wounds from the poisoned tipped sword Laertes used.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Corporate war is the war between opponent firms who compete with each other for greater market share. There are always 2 groups involved in a corporate war and they are: The target company and the competitors. Whenever there is competition the first thing the target company does is to develop its marketing plans based on what they think their opponent will do. The companies formulate two strategies: * The first being their opening move * The subsequent moves are based on the competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy But in any case the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success depends upon how well they prepare their marketing strategies. To do this effectively a company must carefully study its competitors as well as its potential and actual customers. Besides this the company must also identify its weaknesses. The company should also decide as to which competitor should be attacked and which one to be avoided. According to Philip Kotler: * Poor firms ignore their competitors * Average firms copy their competitors * Winning firms lead their competitors Marketing warfare strategies are a type of strategies, used in business and marketing, that try to draw parallels between business and warfare, and then apply the principles of military strategy to business situations. In business we do not have enemies, but we do have competitors; and we do not fight for land, but we do compete for market share. Types of marketing warfare strategies:- Offensive marketing warfare strategies Ã¢â¬â They are strategies designed to obtain some objective, usually market share, from a target competitor. In addition to market share, an offensive strategy could be designed to obtain key customers, high margin market segments, or high loyalty market segments.Ã Fundamental principles:- 1. Assess the strength of the target competitor 2. Find a weakness in the targets position. Attack at this point. 3. Launch the attack on as narrow a front as possible. Whereas a defender must defend all their borders, an attacker has the advantage of being able to concentrate their forces at one place. 4. Launch the attack quickly. Types of offensive marketing warfare strategies:- * Frontal Attack Ã¢â¬â This is a direct head-on assault. It usually involves marshaling all your resources including a substantial financial commitment. All parts of your company must be geared up for the assault from marketing to production. It usually involves intensive advertising assaults and often entails developing a new product that is able to attack the target competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ line where it is strong. It often involves an attempt to Ã¢â¬Å"liberateÃ¢â¬ a sizable portion of the targetÃ¢â¬â¢s customer base. * Envelopment Strategy (also called encirclement strategy) Ã¢â¬â This is a much broader but subtle offensive strategy. It involves encircling the target competitor. This can be done in two ways. You could introduce a range of products that are similar to the target product. Each product will liberate some market share from the target competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s product, leaving it weakened, demoralized, and in a state of siege. If it is done stealthily, a full scale confrontation can be avoided. Alternatively, the encirclement can be based on market niches rather than products. * Leapfrog strategy -This strategy involves bypassing the enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s forces altogether. In the business arena, this involves either developing new technologies, or creating new business models. This is a revolutionary strategy that re-writes the rules of the game. The introduction of compact disc technology bypassed the established magnetic tape based defenders. The attackers won the war without a single costly battle. This strategy is very effective when it can be realized. Defensive marketing warfare strategies Ã¢â¬â They are a type of marketing warfare strategy designed to protect a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market share, profitability, product positioning, or mind share. Fundamental principles:- 1. Always counter an attack with equal or greater force. 2. Defend every important market. Ã 3. Be forever vigilant in scanning for potential attackers. Assess the strength of the competitor. 4. The best defense is to attack yourself. Attack your weak spots and rebuild yourself anew. 5. Defensive strategies should be the exclusive domain of the market leader The main types of defensive marketing warfare strategies are:- * Position defense Ã¢â¬â This involves the defense of a fortified position. This tends to be a weak defense because you become a Ã¢â¬Å"sitting duckÃ¢â¬ . It can lead to a siege situation in which time is on the side of the attacker, that is, as time goes by the defender gets weaker, while the attacker gets stronger. In a business context, this involves setting up fortifications such as barriers to market entry around a product, brand, product line, market, or market segment. This could include increasing brand equity, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, or repeat purchase rate. It could also include exclusive distribution contracts, patent protection, market monopoly, or government protected monopoly status. * Mobile defense Ã¢â¬â This involves constantly shifting resources and developing new strategies and tactics. A mobile defense is intended to create a moving target that is hard to successfully attack, while simultaneously, equipping the defender with a flexible response mechanism should an attack occur. In business this would entail introducing new products, introducing replacement products, modifying existing products, changing market segments, changing target markets, repositioning products, or changing promotional focus. This defense requires a very flexible organization with strong marketing, entrepreneurial, product development, and marketing research skills. * Counter offensive Ã¢â¬â This involves countering an attack with an offense of your own. If you are attacked, retaliate with an attack on the aggressorÃ¢â¬â¢s weakest point. Flanking marketing warfare strategies Ã¢â¬â They are a type of marketing warfare strategy designed to minimize confrontational losses. Fundamental principles:- 1. Avoid areas of likely confrontation. A flanking move always occurs in an uncontested area. 2. Make your move quickly and stealth fully. The element of surprise is worth more than a thousand tanks. 3. Make movesÃ that the target will not find threatening enough to respond decisively to. The main types of flanking marketing warfare strategies are:- * Flanking Attack Ã¢â¬â This is designed to pressure the flank of the enemy line so the flank turns inward. You make gains while the enemy line is in chaos. In doing so, you avoid a head-on confrontation with the main force. The disadvantage with a flanking attack is that It can draw resources away from your center defense, making you vulnerable to a head-on attack. In business terms, a flanking attack involves competing in a market segment that the target does not consider mission critical. The target competitor will not be as concerned about your activities if they occur in market niches that it considers peripheral. * Flanking Position Ã¢â¬â This involves the re-deployment of your resources to deter a flanking attack. You strengthen your flank if you think it is vulnerable. The disadvantage of this defense is that it can distract you from your primary objective and siphon resources away from where they are needed most. In business terms, this involves the introduction of new products, product lines, or brands, the defensive re-positioning of existing products, or additional promotional activity in a market niche. It requires market segmentation and/or product differentiation. You protect against potential loss of market share in a segment by strengthening your competitive position there. * Guerrilla marketing warfare strategies Ã¢â¬â They are a type of marketing warfare strategy designed to wear-down the enemy by a long series of minor attacks. Rather than engage in major battles, a guerrilla force is divided into small groups that selectively attacks the target at its weak points. To be effective, guerrilla teams must be able to hide between strikes. They can disappear into the remote countryside, or blend into the general population. The general form of the strategy is a sequence of attacking, retreating, and hiding, repeated multiple times in series. It has been said that Ã¢â¬Å"Guerrilla forces never win wars, but their adversaries often lose them. Strengths:- 1. Because you never attack the enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s main force, you preserve your resources. 2. It is very flexible and can be adapted to any situation, offensive or defensive. 3. It is very difficult to counter with conventional methods. Baskin-Robbins is an American global ice cream parlor based in Canton, Massachusetts. It was founded in 1945 by Burt Baskin and Irv Robbins in Glendale, California. The company is known for its Ã¢â¬Å"31 flavorsÃ¢â¬ slogan, more than the 28 flavors then famously offered at Howard JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurants, with the idea that a customer could have a different flavor every day of any month. The slogan came from the Carson-Roberts advertising agency in 1953. Baskin and Robbins believed that people should be able to sample flavors until they found one they wanted to buy, hence the iconic small pink spoon. The Baskin-Robbins ice cream parlors started as separate ventures from Burt Baskin and Irv Robbins, owning BurtÃ¢â¬â¢s Ice Cream Shop and Snowbird Ice Cream respectively. Snowbird Ice Cream featured 21 flavors, a novel concept for the time. When the separate companies merged in 1953, this concept grew to 31 flavors. By 1948, Burt and Irv opened six stores, the first franchise covering the sale of ice cream was executed May 20, 1948, for the store at 1130 South Adams in Glendale (Store #1). Burt and Irv were brothers-in-law. In 1949, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s production facility opened in Burbank. They made the decision to sell the stores to the managers, thus becoming one of the first franchised food service businesses. In 1953, Baskin-Robbins hired Carson-Roberts Advertising who recommended adoption of the 31 as well as the pink (cherry) and brown (chocolate) polka dots and typeface that were reminiscent of the circus. The first store that adopted the new 31 look was 804 North Glendale Ave. in Glendale, California in March 1953. Between 1949 and 1962, the corporate firm was Huntington Ice Cream Company. The name succeeded The Baskin-Robbins Partnership and was eventually changed back to Baskin-Robbins, Inc. on November 26, 1962. Baskin-Robbins also was the first to introduce ice cream cakes to the public. 31 Flavors# * Banana Nut Fudge * Black Walnut * Burgundy Cherry * Butterscotch Ribbon * Cherry Macaroon * Chocolate * Chocolate Almond * Chocolate Chip * Chocolate Fudge * Chocolate Mint * Chocolate Ribbon| * Coffee * Coffee Candy * Date Nut * Egg Nog * French Vanilla * Green Mint Stick * Lemon Crisp * Lemon Custard * Lemon Sherbet * Maple Nut| * Orange Sherbet * Peach * Peppermint Stick * Pineapple Sherbet * Pistachio Nut * Raspberry Sherbet * Rocky Road *Ã Strawberry * Vanilla * Vanilla Burnt Almond| * Orange Sherbet * Peach * Peppermint Stick * Pineapple Sherbet * Pistachio Nut * Raspberry Sherbet * Rocky Road * Strawberry * Vanilla * Vanilla Burnt Almond Reuben Mattus, a young entrepreneur with a passion for quality and a vision for creating the finest ice cream, worked in his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s ice cream business selling fruit ice and ice cream pops from a horse-drawn wagon in the bustling streets of the Bronx, New York. To produce the finest ice cream available, he insisted on using only the finest, purest ingredients. The family business prospered throughout the 1930s, 40s and 50s. By 1960, Mr. Mattus, supported by his wife Rose, decided to form a new company dedicated to his ice cream vision. He called his new brand Haagen-Dazs, to convey an aura of the old-world traditions and craftsmanship to which he remained dedicated. Haagen-Dazs ice cream started out with only three flavors: vanilla, chocolate, and coffee. But Mr. MattusÃ¢â¬â¢ passion for quality soon took him to the four corners of the globe. His unique ice cream recipes included dark chocolate from Belgium and hand-picked vanilla beans from Madagascar, creating distinctive and indulgent taste experiences. The Haagen-Dazs brand quickly developed a loyal following. Its early success was created by word of mouth and praise. Without the benefit of advertising, the story of an incredibly rich and creamy confection spread rapidly. At first, it was only available at gourmet shops in New York City, but soon distribution expanded throughout the east coast of the U.S., and by 1973 Haagen-Dazs products were enjoyed by discerning customers throughout the United States. In 1976, Mr. MattusÃ¢â¬â¢ daughter Doris opened the first Haagen-DazsÃ ® Shop. It was an immediate success, and its popularity led to a rapid expansion of Haagen-DazsÃ ® Shops across the country. In 1983 Mr. MattusÃ agreed to sell the Haagen-Dazs brand to The Pillsbury Company, which remained committed to the tradition of superior quality and innovation on which Haagen-Dazs ice cream was founded. Since then, it has become a global phenomenon, available in 50 countries. The same careful attention to quality that Reuben Mattus built into every Haagen-Dazs product remains today. Ice cream lovers the world over now recognize the unique Haagen-Dazs logo as synonymous with the ultimate super-premium ice cream. From the beginning, Haagen-Dazs ice cream has sought to innovate and bring new frozen dessert experiences to its customers, including distinctive flavors such as vanilla swiss almond, butter pecan, and dulce de leche, to name just a few. Haagen-Dazs was also the first to introduce the world to ice cream bars for a grown-up palate, with the introduction of the Haagen-Dazs brand ice cream bar line in 1986. Other super-premium innovations followed, with frozen yogurt in 1991 and sorbet in 1993.To this day, the Haagen-Dazs brand remains committed to developing exceptional new super-premium frozen dessert experiences, releasing new flavors every year. Mattus invented the Danish sounding Ã¢â¬ËHaagen-DazsÃ¢â¬â¢ as a tribute to DenmarkÃ¢â¬â¢s exemplary treatment of its Jews during the Second World War and included an outline map of Denmark on early labels. The name is not Danish, which has neither an umlaut nor a digraph zs, and it has no meaning. Mattus thought that Denmark was known for its dairy products and had a positive image in the U.S. His daughter Doris Hurley reported in the PBS documentary An Ice Cream Show (1999) that her father sat at the kitchen table for hours saying nonsensical words until he came up with a combination he liked. The reason he chose this method was so that the name would be unique and original The ice cream comes in many different flavors and is a Ã¢â¬Å"super-premiumÃ¢â¬ brand, meaning it is quite dense (very little air is mixed in during manufacture), uses no emulsifiers or stabilizers other than egg yolks, and has high butterfat content. Haagen-Dazs is also meant to be kept at a temperature that is substantially lower than most ice creams in order to keep its intended firmness. It is sold both in grocery stores and in dedicated retail outlets serving ice cream cones, sundaes, and so on. In 1980, Haagen-Dazs unsuccessfully sued Frusen GlÃ ¤djÃ ©, an American ice cream maker, whose name without the acute accent is Swedish for Ã¢â¬Å"frozen delightÃ¢â¬ , for using similar foreign branding strategies. Haagen-Dazs was bought by Pillsbury in 1983. General MillsÃ bought Pillsbury in 2001. However, in the United States and Canada, Haagen-Dazs products are produced by NestlÃ © subsidiary DreyerÃ¢â¬â¢s, which acquired the rights as part of the General Mills-Pillsbury deal. The brand name is still owned by General Mills but is licensed to NestlÃ © in the US and Canada. To offset increasing costs of their ingredients and the delivery of the product, Haagen-Dazs announced that in January 2009 it would be reducing the size of their ice cream cartons in the US from 16 US fl oz (470 ml) to 14 US fl oz (410 ml).Additionally they announced that in March 2009 they would be shrinking the 32 US fl oz (950 ml) container to 28 US fl oz (830 ml). In response, Ben & JerryÃ¢â¬â¢s said that they would not be changing the sizes of their cartons. Common Rivals of Baskin Robbins and Haagen Dazs London Diary is the established market leader in the premium ice cream segment. With its rich unique taste and smooth creamy texture. London Diary offers a truly delicious and unforgettable ice cream experience-which you can lose yourself in! With a $5 correspondence course from Penn State in making ice cream, two regular guys named Ben and Jerry open their first ice cream scoop shop in Burlington, Vermont. Heroes for Ice Cream Hungry for Justice SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT Matrix) is a structured planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. A SWOT analysis can be carried out for a product, place or person. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective. The technique is credited to Albert Humphrey, who led a convention at the Stanford Research Institute in the 1960s and 1970s using data from Fortune 500 companies * Strengths: Characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over others * Weaknesses: Are characteristics that place the team at a disadvantage relative to others * Opportunities: External elements that the project could exploit to itsÃ advantage * Threats: External elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project Identification of SWOTs is important because they can inform later steps in planning to achieve the objective. First, the decision makers should consider whether the objective is attainable, given the SWOTs. If the objective is not attainable a different objective must be selected and the process repeated. Users of SWOT analysis need to ask and answer questions that generate meaningful information for each category (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) to make the analysis useful and find their competitive advantage. The aim of any SWOT analysis is to identify the key internal and external factors that are important to achieving the objective. These come from within the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s unique value chain. SWOT analysis groups key pieces of information into two main categories: Internal factors Ã¢â¬â The strengths and weaknesses internal to the organization. External factors Ã¢â¬â The opportunities and threats presented by the external environment to the organization. The internal factors may be viewed as strengths or weaknesses depending upon their effect on the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives. What may represent strengths with respect to one objective may be weaknesses for another objective. The factors may include all of the 4Ps; as well as personnel, finance, manufacturing capabilities, and so on. The external factors may include macroeconomic matters, technological change, legislation, and socio-cultural changes, as well as changes in the marketplace or competitive position. The results are often presented in the form of a matrix. SWOT analysis is just one method of categorization and has its own weaknesses. For example, it may tend to persuade its users to compile lists rather than to think about what is actually important in achieving objectives. It also presents the resulting lists uncritically and without clear prioritization so that, for example, weak opportunities may appear to balance strong threats. It is prudent not to eliminate too quickly any candidate SWOT entry. The importance of individual SWOTs will be revealed by the value of the strategies it generates. A SWOT item that produces valuable strategies is important. A SWOT item that generates noÃ strategies is not important. The usefulness of SWOT analysis is not limited to profit-seeking organizations. SWOT analysis may be used in any decision-making situation when a desired end-state (objective) has been defined. Examples include: non-profit organizations, governmental units, and individuals. SWOT analysis may also be used in pre-crisis planning and preventive crisis management. SWOT analysis may also be used in creating a recommendation during a viability study/survey. Some findings from Menon et al. (1999) and Hill and Westbrook (1997) have shown that SWOT may harm performance. Other complementary analyses have been proposed, such as the Growth-share matrix.