Monday, September 30, 2019
The purpose of this analysis is to highlight how Carrefour has financed its growth over the last four years i. e. 1968 through 1971 with the help of the Statement of Sources and Uses (Exhibit 1). In addition, the financing needs for the projected growth of the company will be reported and analyzed briefly. For this purpose Pro-forma Income Statements (Exhibit 2) and Pro-forma Balance Sheets (Exhibit 3) have been prepared for the next four years (1972 through 1975). From 1968 to 1971, Carrefour has used trade notes extensively as a source of cash. Other significant sources of funds are Other Current Liabilities, Accounts Payable, Shareholder's Equity and Long term debt. Most of the sources have been utilized to fund Building and also to generate more cash for the firm. A good portion of the sources have also been used to create more Inventories from 1968 to 1971. Land has been acquired during these four years as also other fixed assets and current assets. As is seen from the Pro-forma Balance Sheet, Carrefour would have to take significant amounts of Long Term Debt(at 10% Interest rate) in order to finance its expansion outside France. According to the projections, LT Debt would have to be increased to around 89% from 1971 to 1972 and 96% from 1972 to 1973 respectively. This means Carrefour would also have to pay huge amounts of interest on these debts. With revenue growth of 35% Carrefour would be able to support its debt and still earn fair amounts of profit including dividend payouts. However, huge amount of debt and interest expense might be risky and could lead to negative earnings if the actual revenue growth falls below the expected value of 35%. Exhibit 1 CARREFOUR STATEMENT OF SOURCES AND USES Ã¢â¬â 1968 to 1971 | |Ã |1968 |1971 |Change |Source/Use | |Intangible Assets |0 |1 |1 |Use | |Land |14 |28 |14 |Use | |Buildings & Equipment |50 |202 |152 |Use | |Other Fixed Assets 21 |49 |28 |Use | |Total Fixed Assets |85 |279 |194 | | | less: Depreciation |10 |63 |53 |Source | |Net Fixed Assets |75 |216 |141 | | |Investments & Advances |5 |19 |14 |Use | |Inventory |30 |107 |77 |Use | |Acounts Receivable |2 | 4 |2 |Use | |Other Current Assets |58 |124 |66 |Use | |Cash |18 |151 |133 |Use | |Total Current Assets |108 |386 |278 | | |TOTAL ASSETS |188 |622 |434 | | | | | | | | |Shareholders' Equity |39 |112 |73 |Source | |Special Provisions |0 |1 |1 |Source | |Long-term Debt |26 |64 |38 |Source | |Accounts Payable |0 |77 |77 |Source | |Trades notes (noninterest) |100 |244 |144 |Source | |Other Current Liabilities |23 |124 |101 |Source | |Total Current Liabilities |123 |445 |322 | | |TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY |188 |621 |433 | | | | | | | | |Master Check(Sources-Uses) |Ã |Ã |0 | | Exhibit 2 CARREFOUR PROFORMA INCOME STATEMENT |Past 3 yr avg of % of sales taken for| | |all items except Revenues and Int | | |Rates | | |Actual | |Actual |Actual |Actual |Actual |Pro Forma |Pro Forma |Pro Forma |Pro Forma | | | |1968 |1969 |1970 |1971 |1972 |1973 |1974 |1975 | | |Intangible Assets |0 |4 |1 |1 |5 |7 |9 |12 |0. 004 |0. 001 |0. 000 |0. 002 | |Land |14 |20 |25 |28 |50 |67 |90 |122 |0. 020 |0. 017 |0. 013 |0. 016 | |Buildings & Equipment |50 |82 |136 |202 |266 |359 |485 |654 |0. 080 |0. 094 |0. 090 |0. 88 | |Other Fixed Assets |21 |38 |52 |49 |95 |129 |174 |235 |0. 037 |0. 036 |0. 022 |0. 032 | |Total Fixed Assets |85 |140 |213 |279 |411 |555 |749 |1011 | | | | | |less: Depreciation |10 |22 |35 |63 |97 |142 |204 |287 |0. 100 |0. 069 |0. 112 |0. 094 | |Net Fixed Assets |75 |118 |178 |216 |314 |412 |545 |724 | | | | | |Investments & Advances |5 |10 |12 |19 |27 |36 |49 |66 |0. 010 |0. 008 |0. 009 |0. 009 | |Inventory |30 |65 |72 |107 |162 |219 |295 |399 | | | | | |Acounts Receivable |2 |2 |3 |4 |6 |8 |11 |14 |0. 002 |0. 002 |0. 002 |0. 002 | |Other Current Assets |58 |50 |75 |124 |157 |212 |286 |386 |0. 049 |0. 052 |0. 056 |0. 052 | |Cash |18 |51 |116 |151 |199 |268 |362 |489 |0. 050 |0. 080 |0. 068 |0. 66 | |Total Current Assets |108 |168 |266 |386 |524 |707 |954 |1288 | | | | | |TOTAL ASSETS |188 |300 |457 |622 |870 |1162 |1557 |2090 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Shareholders' Equity |39 |89 |98 |112 |206 |278 |375 |507 |0. 087 |0. 068 |0. 050 |0. 068 | |Special Provisions |0 |0 |1 |1 |1 |2 |2 |3 |0. 000 |0. 001 |0. 000 |0. 000 | |Long-term Debt |26 |25 |64 |64 |121 |237 |393 |605 | | | | | |Accounts Payable |0 |48 |61 |77 |124 |168 |226 |305 |0. 047 |0. 042 |0. 034 |0. 041 | |Trades notes (noninterest) |100 |79 |147 |244 |244 |244 |244 |244 | | | | | |Other Current Liabilities |23 |59 |86 |124 |173 |234 |316 |427 |0. 058 |0. 060 |0. 056 |0. 058 | |Total Current Liabilities |123 |186 |294 |445 |542 |646 |786 |976 | | | | | |TOTAL LIABILITIES & EQUITY |188 |300 |457 |622 |870 |1162 |1557 |2090 | | | |
Sunday, September 29, 2019
While there is a growing concern over the doomsday and gloom events that the earth will likely suffer if people will continue harassing the environment, a big inquiry within the issue on global warming bomdards people everyday: is global warming fact of fantasy? Environmentalists, politicians and concerned citizens are getting involved in the so-called great divide over how real the threat of global warming is or how scary will it be for the people who are caught believing in politicking through science. The scarcity on the supply of potable water and the warming of the oceans, seas and the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface are all well documented inciting a compelling evidence indicating that global warming may not be the impending doomsday that many scientists forecast. The divided arguments over the reality of global warming is said to be heightened by by commercial and political interests infiltrating the global initiative to curb the devastating effect of global warming. On the other hand, several concerned scientists believe on the promise of the precautionary measures mobilized by governments across the globe in the pursuit of delayinng or even getting rid of the future threats of damage caused by global warming. While there is still no consensus on the vital controversy, this paper takes a stand by suggesting that there is a clear over-manipulation on the issue and instead of exposing to people the real scenario and the real solution to the problem of global warming, there is a great deal of populist pressure overshadowing the advocacy. The aim of this paper is to explore the controversies behind global warming that confuse people across the globe. The Earth is Indeed Getting Warmer According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the earth is really getting warmer and that globally averaged surfac temperatures have increased by 1. 1? over the 20th century (Tennesen 4). Under the jurisdiction of the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environmental Program, the institution has estimated that by year 2100, the earth will be 2. 5 to 10. 4? warmer than the present (Tennesen 4). It is said that the human civilization has been causing disturbances to nature by way of abusive of carbon and hydrogen which are considered as the building blocks of nature (J. Tickell and K. Tickell 16). Many scientists and environmentalists believe that greenhouse effect initiates global warming. Greenhouse effect is the ability to of the gases circulating around the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s artmosphere to keep the planet warm (J. Tickell and K. Tickell 17). In this sense, man has brought imbalance to nature and amplified the greenhouse effect by producing billions of tons of greenhouse gases (J. Tickell and K. Tickell 17). This is why man becomes a The Environmental Fantasies With all the scientific evidence cementing the idea that the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s rising temperature is alarming, uncertainties and confusion still envelops the global struggle against global warming. Why is is this so? According to Greg Easterbrook, Ã¢â¬Å" Environmentalists, who are surely on the right side of history, are increasingly on the wrong side of the present, risking their credibility by proclaiming emergencies that do not exist. Ã¢â¬ (qtd. in Percival and Alevizatos 401). He adds that scientists and concerned people known as doomsayers are giving uncautious answers as to whether how alarming global warming could be in the near future when in fact, the main answer should be Ã¢â¬Å"We still donÃ¢â¬â¢t knowÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Percival and Alevizatos 407). The unpredictable state of nature is what instigates several fantasies on the reality of global warming. The populist mechanisms of environmental advocates are making it vague for humans to comprehend and understand all contingencies pointing to global warming. The fantasies which the populists continuously argue include the weather anomalies and those ideologies imposed by the cold earth theorists (Ross 205). Those who support cold earth are still holding their ground againts the media frenzy over global warming saying that the warming theory is just a fabricated government cover-up strongly impacted by the short-term interests of the energy industry (Ross 206). The theorists seem to laugh off the apocalyptic projection of concerned individuals over the impact of global warming because they recognize the need for accurate and realistic estimation of the damage. The cold earth theorists argue that carbon dioxide, the known factor in all reports of global warming, accounted for only three percent of temperature variation and that the documented increase in the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature is actually an aspect in hastening the end of the interglacial period (Ross 204). Due to the strange and unpredictable character of the weather, it is quite easy to overrate or even underrate what it will soon bring to the earth. The theorists attest to the idea of scientific frailty by bringing in uncertainties in the issue that seem to attract political and economic interest. Factors such as career prestige, government funding, lobby, formulate and administer policy and the advancement of the discipline of climatology are what fuel political interests in the issue creating such a thing as fantasies (Ross 211). All of the factors given are generally associated with precautionary measures being undertaken by governments and organizations worldwide to combat the problem on the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s warming and the . Some critics say that the worldwide initiatives against global warming become a form of constructive power that transforms the world into a different image, detaching it from its real meaning and value and delivering it up to the realization of technical description and control (Ross 212). This realization brings up the idea of fantasies overshadowing the reality of global warming. The vigorous publicity rendered towards global warming is leading towards a more mature idea of ecology as a resource management. Conclusion The only thing factual about global warming is that people are starting to feel its wrath. NatureÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath is an inevitable circumstance resulting from manÃ¢â¬â¢s continued use of carbon dioxide and other harmful substances that cause natureÃ¢â¬â¢s rift. Though there are skeptics who believe that the precautionary measures of governments are just mere fantasises based on selfish and populist ideals, scientific uncertainties should not an excuse to to delay governmental actions where there are clear threarts of danger that could be grave and irreversible (Berry 216). The fantasies which this paper have explored given an insight on how ill-prepared and ill-informed the people are when it comes to the real situation and threat of nature. It is said that the pursuit for better and liveable environment is not a mediocre and a cheap course to take and the skeptics who are not ready to accept the cost that comes with the pursuit. It is a classic thought that the public is not ready to accept the unlimited extra costs for the maintenance of good environment (Berry 216). The consumers are not willing to pay more to have a better environment to live in and they begin to doubt the real costs of confronting the problem of global warming. The fantasies explored in this paper are all associated to economic and political ideals and the skeptics of global warming belong in the consumer group who contribute greatly to the global pursuit by paying taxes and buying goods. This scenario is largely attributable to the skepticism against the initiatives conducted by the government to lessen or even alleviate the future effects of global warming. Even with the skepticism, it is a reality that people could not compromise the earth they are living in. Works Cited Berry, Robert, J. , ed. Environmental Dilemmas: Ethics and Decisions. London: Chapman and Hall, 1993. Print. Percival, Robert, V. , and Dorothy Alevizatos, eds. Law and the Environment: A Multidisciplinary Reader. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997. Print. Ross, Andrew. Strange Weather: Culture, Science and Technology in the Age of Limits. London: Verso, 1991. Print. Tennesen, Michael. The Complete IdiotÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide to Global Warming. New York: Alpha Books, 2004. Print. Tickell, Joshua, and Kaia Tickell, From the Fryer to the Fuel Tank: The Complete Guide to Using Vegetable Oil as an Alternative Fuel. California: Tickell Energy, 2003. Print.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
What are the benefits of emergency management doctrine, and how do you think its creation may be enhanced in the context of the UAE - Essay Example ces had to evacuate their homes for the sake of visitors and holy servants who crowded the area for such functions and since the climatic conditions are always harsh, the inhabitants had to move around all day long distributing water to quench thirst. The United Arab Emirates, for the last eighty years has been on the move coming up with an effective emergency management plan. From the Saudi Arabian documentation, the first response to such emergencies was by the establishment of a fire brigade in 1927 to serve pilgrims who flock Makah each year for special prayers. The establishment of emergency management doctrine has brought along great benefits to the United Arab Emirates. It has been possible to save lives and assets from damage. United Arabs Emirates has been the centre of discussion because of the terrorist attacks for example the Khobar tower bomb attack in 1996, which claimed 19 lives, the Yanbu and Asir floods caused pure destruction to property estimated over 230,000 km2, the fire and meningitis outbreak during Hajj and Ramadan festivals in 1997 and 1987 respectively affected close to 2,000 pilgrims (Alamri 15).. These are just a few examples of the damages caused by hazardous happenings. Through emergency management doctrine, it has been able to contain most of the calamities through resource optimization; which means being in a position to deploy and respond to emergency situations. For instance, due to a daily increase in the number of worshippers flocking Makkah, the Saudi Red Crescent Society has already come up with a medical e vacuation system which involves the use of twenty five helicopters. This in turn will help save innocent lives in case of disease outbreaks. In addition, it has eased the motor vehicle crashes and traffic jams. This is evident through the creation of Makah Metro, which has the capability to connect all the holy places around Makah 24/7. This works in line with a digital traffic control system; Saher. This ensures all
Friday, September 27, 2019
BlackBerry - Report - Essay Example In 2010, it had a market share of 43% in the United States of the American market. However, in the recent years, the market share of the company has dramatically faced a precipitous decline. The steep decline has been due to the intense competition from the GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s Android and AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iPhones. For this reason, the blackberry companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market share in the United States personal consumer market only, was trimmed down to 3.8% in the year 2013. However, on other markets other than the United States private consumer market, the products have had a healthy market trend. In September, the same year, the company authenticated an intent letter to be acquired by the United States ($4.7 billion or US $9 per share). It was through a consortium led by Fairfax Financial that then announced its plan to take the company private. Later on November 4, of the same year, the deal was wiped in favor of US $1 billion. At the moment, the majority of the remaining value of the company lies in innovation. A number of different factors influence the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive position. However, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest challenge in the coming months or years will be to prove to business and consumers that they can match the current Android, Apple and the coming up Microsoft juggernauts that seem to be evading into the distance ahead with their consumers. Reports by Marukawa (2010) detail that in the past months, Blackberry smartphones have gone from being the once dominant smartphones in the market to becoming marginal player in most markets. It has resulted to the company suffering significant losses. The company is losing out to the current iPhone and android mobile handsets. Blackberry launched its tablet, and the Blackberry playbook a year after the iPad, first generation. To blackberry, this was one of the moments that proved to be extremely disastrous. The playbook did not sell as
Thursday, September 26, 2019
What are the different types of businesses that exist in the UK - Essay Example Each and every business organization and their respective locations are different and are generally needed to be observed for rules and regulations. Before you finally make up your mind to the type of business that you intend doing or going in for, it is advisable to go in for the professional advice of your solicitors and accountants and have a good attorney, well versed with all the rules and regulations, to help you decide and plan your project and business. There are various types of businesses and types of plans that you could chalk out for getting the proper result and feedback from your business. A business plan is basically a document, incorporating things like market research, operational requirements, promotional strategies, and the financial projections. The plan is mainly used to raise capital, reorganize the actives and resources and preparations for the final sell out as well. A strategic management plan focuses on the on the management personnel and its main team. I may incorporate the procedure, manuals of how the operations should take place, policy and the organizations. It fits mainly into the operational aspects where all the staff requirements. And all the management philosophy is made. Amongst the many kinds of businesses and business organizations that are in the UK are Partnership, Private Limited Company, Public Limited Company, Franchise and Sole Trader are the most common ones. Out of the many important decisions that any business owner has to face, whenever they start any new business is to decide as to what structure the business will consist have, of what kinds it will be. The decision would include many things like There are different types of partnerships. The tow common ones are general partnerships and limited partnerships. Through an oral agreement, two or more people can easily form a general partnership. Though it is not recommended that an oral agreement should be started, instead with the help of an attorney, you
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Compare and contrast the classical and Keynesian theory of unemployment. Conclude by discussing which argument has been more convincing for you and why - Essay Example A lower wage rate will lead to an increase in the number of workers being employed and the vice versa. Unemployment occurs when there is excess supply of workers in the market at a particular wage level. The equilibrium level of the demand and supply for labour is established after the unemployed workers accept lower wages. The full employment level is associated with the equilibrium level in the labour market (Blanchard, 2005). Unemployment occurs when the wage level is above the equilibrium wage; hence, leading to a higher labour compared to the quantity being demanded in the market. As a result, unemployment can be classified as the difference between the supply and the demand. The flexibility of the wages has a direct effect on the level of unemployment. A decrease in the demand for a product will lead to a decrease in the demand for labour; hence, leading to high levels of unemployment. Consequently, the wage rate will fall but competition between the workers will cause them to accept the low wages; therefore, leading to a new equilibrium state. The theory explains a situation where low wage rates do not result to higher employment levels due to the employers are facing low demand for services and goods when the economy is in a recession (Phoa, Focardi and Fabozzi, 2007). The aggregate demand is the main determinant of the level of economic outputs during recessions. However, it does not have an equal effect on the productive ability off the economy but is influenced by certain determinants such as inflation and employment rates. According to the Keynesian theory, the changes in aggregate demand have short run effects on employment and output unlike in the prices. The unemployment occurs when the aggregate demand function intersects the aggregate supply function since the economy cannot experience a full employment level. The theory states that the government can use public investment programs to raise the aggregate
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
What explains today's high degree of global financial integration - Essay Example lobal integration in the financial market has given the opportunities to the investors to diversify the risks and to access the financial products in a more easy way. (Agarwal, n.d.) The functionalities of the process of globalization has been motivated by heterogeneous factors, such as gradual increase of trade in goods and services, increase of free movement of capital across international borders, increase of international mobility of labor and increase of global technological transfers. The impact of international movement of capital and global financial integration on the developing countries experienced a dramatic change in the early 1990s with the enhancement of financial deregulation in many countries. (Wolf 2005) This is the period when the free capital movement from the developed and industrial nations to the developing nations had started to rise vividly which was seen through the increase in growth of the developing nations. However, during this era the globe has also seen a sequence of financial crises across many countries. In one hand many developed countries faced the financial crises, such as the 1992 and 1993 financial crises of the developed c ountries in the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM). On the other hand the developing nations also faced such crises, like the Mexican Tequila crisis in 1995, 1997 and 1998 Asian crises, the Latin American and the Russian crises from 1998 to 2000 etc. All these crises that were seen throughout different part of the globe gradually proved that there lies an inherent risk of the international financial integration behind its benefit. The international financial integration through the opening of the cross border financial markets is a multifarious phenomenon that involves in unrestricting the movement of foreign direct investment (FDI) from the developed countries to the developing countries and pulling up the regulations from both the short term and long term financial instruments which are responsible
Monday, September 23, 2019
Russban Plastics - Essay Example It means that Jack together with the minor shareholders will not be able to vote for the approval of the company's dissolution; he needs to be in agreement with Ben. Therefore, Andy and Ben will be able to continue their business. However, it is recommended to negotiate with Jack and other shareholders, because their strong dissatisfaction may lead to opposition to approval of the investment decisions and bring company to a halt. 3. In order to buy out the shareholders and remaining shares at par value, and to obtain a full control over the Russband's operations, a loan of ( 120,000 - 60,000 - 21,000) + ( 250,000 - 160,000) = 169, 000 will be necessary. The bank will not have a positive view of the loan, as the amount of the loan is quite substantial, and the company's expansion plans would have to be shelved for another year. It means, at least, two more consequent years of losses and there is no proof that the market conditions afterwards will be favourable and allow achieving considerable profits. Whether the loan will be granted will depend on Ben and Andy's ability to provide a sound financial plan indicating that the company in the future will be able to generate enough cash to make principal and interest payments, and on the presence of appropriate collateral. Russban Plastics has sufficient authorized capital, more than 25% of it issued and satisfactory amount of the paid-up capital. To change the status from private to a PLC company it will need to seek certificate of trading and incorporation from the authorities before starting the financing activities. Afterwards, it will also need to submit latest financial reports and made the news and information that are likely to affect the price available to the market. In order to join AIM the company will need to: Appoint an advisor and a broker; Submit a declaration of business interest; Submit an admission document; Pay admission fee of 4,000; Incur the advisor's fees ranging from 300,000 up to 1,000,000 and 2%-5% flotation cost. Generally speaking, while going public offers an opportunity to raise a significant amount of additional funding, it will require substantial spending of the management time and costs. 5. The incremental investment amount, taking into account sale of the existing premises for 500,000, would be equal to 500,000. According to the Gordon Growth Model cost of equity will be equal to: Ce = D1/p0 + g = (50 p*0.06* (1 + 0.01))/50 p + 1% = 7.1% Considering also cost of
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Toyota Motor Corporation Essay In a business organization, the organization is composed of systems that concentrate on overall efficiency. A systems approach is essential whenever something is being designed, redesigned, implemented, improved, or otherwise changed. It is important to take into account the impact on all parts of the system. Consider owning and operating an automobile. It has many parts and systems that can malfunction; some of these are critical. The automobile would not function or would be dangerous to operate without them. The Toyota Company seemed to have missed the importance of the impact on all parts a system as they came under scrutiny with the largest recall of vehicles in the United States in 2009-2010. These recalls were triggered by a car collision in August 2009 that took the lives of four people. This assignment will look at what barriers caused the systems to fail within the Toyota Company that subsequently changed the attitudes of their consumers and their trust towards Toyota. Toyota Motor Corporation The Toyota Motor Corporation was established in 1933 as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works under the direction of Kiichiro Toyoda. In 1934, the company produced its first Type A engine at the encouragement of the Japanese government, and two years later the company produced its first passenger car, the Toyota AA and in 1937 was established as an independent company. In 1957 Toyota established its first sales, marketing, and distribution subsidiary in the U.S., called Toyota Motor Sales Inc. In 1982, Toyota Motor Corporation formed a joint venture with General Motors, called New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. and began production in the U.S. in 1988 establishing new brands for this market. In 2009, Toyota employed more than 8,900 people and supervised 14 regional offices throughout the 50 states. Toyota produced 5.2 million cars in 58 production sites in 2000, and by 2009 they had the capacity to produce 10 million cars and had added 17 production sites. Toyota had added the capacity of a Chrysler-sized company. (Greto et al., 2010). In January 2010, Toyota suspended sales of eight recalled vehicle models to fix accelerator pedals with mechanical problems that could cause them to become stuck. In December 2012, Toyota announced an agreement worth more than $1,000 million to settle a lawsuit involving unintended acceleration in some of its vehicles (Slobe, 2010) Existing Processes According to Greto et al.(2010) the Toyota company incorporated a philosophy known as the Toyota Way. This set of principles was to bring about approaches that called for continuous improvement, which encouraged teamwork, respect, and value for people. The Toyota Way was to encourage employees to strive for perfection. Another key process to mention is the Toyota Production System (TPS). It was designed to remove all unnecessary waste from the production and manufacturing process. More than just waste avoidance, it aimed to eliminate any excess interruption, misalignment, unnecessary work, or redundancies in the production process that add no value to customers. Specifically, TPS addressed seven kinds of waste: overproduction, operator motion, waiting, conveyance, self-processing, inventory, and correction (rework and scrap). Through TPS, Toyota had been able to significantly reduce lead-time and production costs (p 4). Importance to Toyota These processes both posed of great importance to the Toyota Company because when you value and respect your employees and external constituents it brings about a level of trust and cohesiveness in the work place and your company gains loyalty from the customers. When everyone is operating as a team, any challenges that exist are met with courage and this creates a level of motivation within the company to bring about improvement. In regards to the having a production system that will bring to the forefront at the onset any issues, it eliminates wasted time, production costs, and manpower. It builds a foundation to where employees are reliable where they embrace the philosophy of quality at the start. It also creates a learning environment where leaders who carefully understand the philosophy, will teach it to others. This grows the company and builds it up for success. Scope: Breadth of its reach The scope of its reach can be throughout the global market. Not only within the automobile industry but because Toyota diversified into several nonautomotive businesses, it can also affect industries in aerospace, higher education, robotics, finance, and agricultural biotechnology (Greto et al., 2010). Parties involved: customers as well as internal and external suppliers. When there is a breakdown in these processes, it impacts the employees and all external stakeholders. For example, when a breakdown occurred in the lines of communication between the Japan and U.S. offices, in responding to the issues with the faulty accelerators, not only was customers affected, stockholders were affected. When the reputation of a company is tarnished, it affects the stockholders and they stand to lose money they invested in the company. Supply vendors are also affected when these processes breakdown because they lose business as well. Competitors can also be positively affected by this. They gain the customers who choose to no longer do business with Toyota. Priority: the timeliness or urgency. Timeliness is important to any business as this attributes to the quality of service a company provides customers, to employee concerns, matters concerning supply vendors and stock holders to name a few. Toyota did not readily address the concerns of their customers initially until it became more in the public eye. This takes away from the value of the company and it certainly affected customer loyalty and satisfaction to say the least. The company stock value went down and it suffered millions of dollars in lost. Timeliness is certainly a priority for any business. Overall impact or benefits of improvement to Toyota The overall impact for Toyota led to someone dying while driving a faulty vehicle therefore all the millions of dollars they were fined still does not make up for the loss of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. This goes down in ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s history book as it cost them their reputation. The benefit is that can take place is to push management to take a look at their overall company operations and break down the areas that need improvements; identify additional defects and restructure their operational systems. If changes are to occur, Toyota has the opportunity to make changes, manufacture more innovative vehicles, and create initiatives that involves the communities they do business with as a way to build trust and their reputation. Cost to Toyota if the process is not improved The cost to Toyota if these processes are not improved could mean failure with a loss of market. The business can go bankrupt; offices close down, excessive inventory, stock price decreases, and employee layoffs that add to the unemployment rate.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Biome Essay The African Savanna biome is a tropical grassland in Africa between latitude 15Ã ° North and 30 degrees S and longitude 15 degrees W and 40Ã ° West. It covers Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cote Divore, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana, and South Africa. Around 2 million large plant-eating mammals live in the savanna. There are 45 species of mammals, almost 500 species of birds, and 55 species of acacia in the Serengeti Plains. There are animals such as lions, African wildcats, klipspringer, steenbok, Burchells zebra, African Savanna monitor, and puff adders. They have the largest diversity of hoofed animals in the world including antelopes, wildebeest, buffalos, zebras, and rhinoceros. Fire, ground water, water table, soils moisture retention, landforms (plateau, mountain, valley) and their slope ( 3% to 10%), soil temperate, days of cloud cover versus days of sun for amount of sunlight and it influence, first last frost dates for growing season. Focus on the limiting factors of the air supply, precipitation, soil types, light.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Impact of Increased Temperature on Delosperma Cooperi Pollen Eunice Oh The Impact of Increased Temperature due to Global Warming on Pollen Germination ofÃ DelospermaÃ Cooperi Introduction: There is an ongoing crisis that is beginning to influence ecosystems throughout the world,Ã which may lead to largeÃ scaleÃ natural disasters due to the rise in temperature from global warming. According to NASAÃ¢â¬â¢s Goddard Institute for Space studies,Ã 0.8Ã °CÃ have increased around the world since 1880. In addition, the rise in temperature is pervasive andÃ isÃ increasing at a faster rate in the last two decades (SITE1). This warming phenomenon can disturb ecosystemsÃ andÃ lead to extinction in extreme cases.Ã Such ecosystems are dependent on plant growth and proliferation to sustain itself.Ã Therefore, an experiment toÃ observeÃ theÃ effects ofÃ a significantÃ rise in temperature on pollen germination was conducted to predict the adaptability ofÃ DelopspermaÃ cooperi,Ã aÃ common species ofÃ iceplantÃ grown around the world, toÃ this phenomenonÃ . TÃ Delosperma cooperiÃ (trailing iceplant) was compared toÃ Tulbaghia violaceaÃ (society garlic)Ã to obtain a broader view of how different plants from the same environment would react to a distinct change in temperature.Ã An increase of 10Ã °C was chosen as the variable to performÃ analysis with the Q10Ã temperature coefficient.Ã Pollen is a fine powder that contains microgametophytes of seed plants and produces male gametes. When pollination occurs, the pollen grainÃ germinates and a tube is producedÃ as a conduit to transport the male gametes from the stigma to the pistilsÃ of the ovule in flowering plantsÃ (SITE2).Ã In nature, germination occursÃ when the stigma is hydrated fromÃ waterÃ sources (e.g. rain)Ã . can also be inducedÃ in vitroÃ usingÃ aÃ germination media andÃ theÃ hanging drop method (SITE 3).Ã Three replicates were observed the wereÃ analyzedÃ withÃ statisticsÃ toÃ measure the significance of the variable Ã (via a T-test, and Dixon Q). Ã The plantÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature dependence was quantified with the Q10Ã temperature coefficient. It was predictedÃ that the increase in temperature would result inÃ a significant improvement ofÃ pollen germination rateÃ and longer pollen tubes than the controlÃ due toÃ DelospermaÃ cooperiÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ adaptive traits (quote). Materials and Methods: Germination ofÃ DelospermaÃ cooperiÃ was induced in basic germination media, composed ofÃ 1mM KCl, 0.1mM CaCl2, 1.6mM H3BO3, 10% glucose,and distilled water. Standard labÃ equipments wereÃ used: lightÃ microscope,Ã gardenÃ gaskets, depression slides, slides warmer, petri dish,Ã and micropipettes. The light microscope was used under the 10x objective to track the germination process and measure the elongation of pollen tubes. ToÃ accommodateÃ forÃ a large sample volume (50Ã µLÃ transferred using micropipettes), garden gaskets were employed to extend the capacity of the depression slides.Ã AÃ slides warmerÃ was used to maintain the high temperature environment (37Ã °CÃ )Ã andÃ wetÃ petriÃ dishes wereÃ utilized as germination chambers. The hanging drop method consistsÃ of several steps. Ã A gasket was placed on top of the slide in order to create an area for the hanging drop to be intact with the cover slideÃ and held together with grease. The slides were placed in the humidityÃ chamber toÃ allow germination andÃ prevent drying. Two sets of the hanging drops were prepared, one for the higher temperature (37Ã °C),Ã and another for theÃ positiveÃ controlÃ (27Ã °CÃ ). The negative control was prepared by observing the pollen without any germination media. Statistical analysis methodology: TheÃ germinationÃ elongation rates were recordedÃ by sampling fiveÃ pollenÃ tubes from each slide in 30 minutesÃ intervals, up to 150 minutes.Ã This data was analyzedÃ using biostatistics.Ã AÃ DixonÃ Q test was performed to identify and remove outliers.Ã TheÃ Dixon Q testÃ was calculated using the equation, Q= (gap)/(range). The gap refers to the absolute difference between the outlier and the closest number to the outlierÃ and the range is simply between the smallest and largest valuesÃ (CITE). After the elimination of outliers from the Dixon Q test, a student T-TestÃ (with a 95% confidence interval)Ã was performed to determine whether the variables were statistically significant in the difference of their elongation ratesÃ using P valuesÃ (SITE).Ã Finally, aÃ Q10Ã value was determined from the mean ofÃ elongationÃ rates.Ã It was calculated by using the following equation: Q10Ã = (R2/R1)10/(T2-T1).Ã Q10Ã is a unit-less measur ement thatÃ quantifyÃ the change of a biological systemÃ due to temperature change. Results: The purpose of the experiment was toÃ measure theÃ elongation rates after every 30 minute interval, 32 points of data were obtained and analyzed.Ã Overall, the elongation rateÃ ofÃ Delosperma cooperifor the highÃ temperature variable was as much as threeÃ times fasterÃ compared to the controlÃ temperatureÃ (0.686Ã Ã µm/min vs.Ã 0.278Ã µm/min)Ã in trial three. The percent germination wasÃ alsoÃ noticeably better for theÃ high temperature variableÃ versus the control, whereÃ it wasÃ approximately 60% compared to 20%Ã after 120Ã minutes from initiation. From the list of data, theÃ Dixon Q-test result indicated the data point 0.780Ã µm/min of the higher temperature control as an outlierÃ with a 95% confidence level. The mean elongation rate for the room temperature was 0.314Ã µm/min and 0.454Ã µÃ m/min for the higher temperature control. The student T-TestÃ yieldedÃ a P value of 0.0447, which indicatesÃ that the result is statistically significant at a 95% confidence interval.Ã TheÃ Q10Ã temperature coefficientÃ forÃ Delosperma cooperiÃ was calculated to beÃ 3.59, categorized as a temperature dependent biological system. Figure 1.Ã The graph shows the averageÃ elongationÃ rates ofÃ DelospermaÃ cooperiÃ at two differentÃ temperatures. The tubule elongation rate wasÃ 0.314Ã µm/minÃ for the control andÃ 0.454Ã µm/minÃ for the variable. Error bars denote one standard deviationÃ (0.152Ã µm/minÃ andÃ 0.177Ã µm/min, respectively)Ã above and below the mean. FigureÃ 2. The graph shows the average elongation rates ofÃ TulbaghiaÃ ViolaceaÃ at two differentÃ temperatures. The tubule elongation rate wasÃ 17.4Ã µm/min for the control andÃ 3.00Ã µm/min for the variable. Error bars denote one standard deviation (1.95Ã µm/minÃ andÃ 0.279Ã µm/min, respectively)Ã above and below the mean. Discussion: The results appear to support the hypothesis, whereÃ DelospermaÃ cooperiÃ was positively affected by the increasedÃ temperatureÃ by approximatelyÃ a 0.140Ã µm/minÃ and 40% germinationÃ improvement.Ã The result shows that the higher temperature yielded in an improvement in both percentage germination and pollen tube length growthÃ at a significant level (P10Ã value is higher than 2. Q10Ã is a unit-less measurement that establish a temperature coefficientÃ that correlates a systemÃ¢â¬â¢s change to temperature differenceÃ (of 10Ã °C)Ã (SITE 4) In addition,Ã theÃ higher percentage germination was observed from the higher temperature controlÃ correspond to an articleÃ in whichÃ Delosperma cooperiÃ is more adapted to a higher temperature environmentÃ due toÃ increased metabolic rate under temperature stressÃ (SITE 5). The results ofÃ DelopsermaÃ cooperiÃ were compared withÃ TulbaghiaÃ violaceaÃ and suggest that the increased temperature had the opposite effect onÃ TulbaghiaÃ violacea, whereÃ pollen germination percentage and pollen tube growth were more effective in the room temperature control.Ã Tulbaghia violaceaÃ is known to be better suited in the colder environmentÃ while highÃ temperaturesÃ restrict their germination (SITE 6). However, the data was determined to be not significantly significant.Ã (P>0.6).Ã A possible future experiment includes testing a greater variety of indigenousÃ flower pollensÃ under more temperature variances. The experiment provided a glimpse into how certain plants would respond toÃ the consequences ofÃ globalÃ warmingÃ and more studies are needed for a more comprehensive overview.Ã References Leistner, O. A. (ed.). 2000.Ã Seed plants of southern Africa: families and genera. Strelitzia10. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. Mozaffar Ebrahim Edmund John Pool (2010). The effect ofÃ TulbaghiaviolaceaÃ extracts on testosterone secretion by testicular cell cultures.Ã Journal ofÃ EthnopharmacologyÃ 132(1): 359Ã¢â¬â361 Reyes, A.B.,Ã Pendergast, J.S., andÃ Yamazaki, S. 2008. Mammalian peripheral circadian oscillators are temperature compensated. J.Biol. Rhythms 23: 95-98. Ã¢â¬Å"Global Warming Facts.Ã¢â¬ 2007. National Geographic.Ã http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/12/1206_041206_global_warming.html Raven, Peter H.; Ray F. Evert, Susan E. Eichhorn (2005).Biology of Plants, 7th Edition. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company Publishers. pp.504Ã¢â¬â508. Pfahler PL (1981).In vitro germination characteristics of maize pollen to detect biological activity of environmental pollutants. Health Perspect.37: 125Ã¢â¬â32. Reyes, A.B.,Pendergast, J.S., and Yamazaki, S. 2008. Mammalian peripheral circadian oscillators are temperature compensated. J.Biol. Rhythms 23: 95-98. RinnanÃ R, Steinke M,Ã McGenityÃ T, Loreto F. Plant volatiles in extreme terrestrial and marine environments.Plant Cell Environ. 2014 Mar 7. http://autocite.durkmed.com/
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Have you heard about Korean War, which occurred in June, 25, 1950? The conflict between ideologies caused this war with tens of millions killed, millions of families separated, the country reduced to rubble, and a huge permanent scar on KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. Then, Vietnam War, Gulf War, or Iraq war can sound familiar to you. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s change point to the number of dead bodies from wars themselves. Can you guess how many people got killed during all of those war periods? Only for Vietnam War, the true civilians of Vietnam War were two millions in the north, and another two millions in the south, and military causalities were 1.1 million killed and six hundreds thousand wounded during war. To finish a war, how many innocent people and soldiers have to get killed? Even if a war ended, who had the responsibilities about those deaths? Most of the modern wars were resulted from conflict of ideologies such as communism and capitalism. Since international relationships were settled down among countries, a war is not any more about one or two countries. For example, supporting troops were sent to South Korea during the Korean War by 16 different countries under U.N order. No matter which part achieved a victory, damages after war remained and hurt all of them. Can war be justified for any party or any reason? The answer is Ã¢â¬Å"No.Ã¢â¬ St. Augustine enunciated that a war can be justified only Ã¢â¬Å"when it is fought for a just causeÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Ã¢â¬Å"Peace and WarÃ¢â¬ ). But what is a Ã¢â¬Å"just causeÃ¢â¬ ? Everybody has a different definition and it can be totally subjective. In most modern cultures or most countries, war is accepted as an effective and justifiable way of protecting national interests and achieving diplomatic goals. It can be the just cause as St. Augu... ...ar veterans suffered brain damage after chemical exposure, study saysÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â November.30.1999 Ã¢â¬Å"Veterans with Gulf War syndrome have damage in specific, primitive portion of nervous systemÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â September.24.2004 Ã¢â¬Å"Guilty of war crimes - or victim of a feud with US soldiers?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â May.22.2003 Ã¢â¬Å"The desert ecology: another war victimÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â March.27.2003 Ã¢â¬Å"Clinton announces new money for Gulf War syndrome researchÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â November.8.1997 Ã¢â¬Å"Gulf Link : Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War IllnessesÃ¢â¬
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Kirt Achenbach SOC 168 Exam #2 Question #1 a) Conley doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t think that African Americans private property doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t fit well in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s meritocracy because itÃ¢â¬â¢s not worth much. There arenÃ¢â¬â¢t many things that poor African American families own that give them weight in the wealth department. As far as the ethos side of things African Americans that live in poor areas have this negative serotype that goes along with them, that hurts them bridge the gap between black and whites. So when you are an African American family thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not very well off chances is that the private property that you own isnÃ¢â¬â¢t worth much, which in turn doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give you very much net worth. b) African American finds it hard to purchase a home in a racially integrated Neighborhood because the housing values are higher in these areas. When there is a mixture of black and whites there seems to be an increase in housing costs. Once there are African Americans moving into these areas the market begins to go down and interest in these properties begin to drop and real-estate values go down. Once this happens to people, in particular white people, begin to move out because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to lose money. When that happens then the neighborhood completely tips and integration stops. Conley talks about a way to keep this from happening by introducing Integration Insurance, which would insure against any price changes or any devaluation in the real estate as a result of racial composition. c) Conley says that African American are much less likely to invest their money in the stock market, an those who do will generally get less of a return on their money because they started out with less. He also says that given the run in recent stock market prices that if blacks were... ...n the policy areas of the book. She believes that some of his explanations of statistical results Ã¢â¬Å"lack lusterÃ¢â¬ . For example Conley says that being a female has a significant and detrimental effect on employment, hours worked, and wages. Hargis argues is point and that Conley fails to fully address how womenÃ¢â¬â¢s disadvantage position in a workplace contributes to the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to accumulate wealth. She also says Ã¢â¬Å"And when Conley finds that African Americans work fewer hours, yet make higher wages than similarly placed full-time-employed whites, he tries to reconcile these seemingly incongruent findings in the simplest of termsÃ¢â¬ (www.h-net.org). She is basically saying the Conley hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t looked at all the scenarios in which African Americans make money, and he insinuates that African Americans money disadvantages is a direct result of affirmative action policies.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
** Introduction : A medical microbiology lab performs testing on human samples collected from different body sites. The tests are used to detect and identify any microorganisms capable of causing disease. Knowing of unknown microorganism is important on how this microorganism Ã works and how it is structured, means knowing how it can affect humans. The purpose of this study was to identify an unknown bacterium by applying all methods that were previously conducted and learned in the medical microbiology laboratory class. **Materials : 1) Blood agar plate . 2) Mannitol Salt agar (MSA) plate. ) DNase agar plate . 4) Novobiocin disc . 5) Inoculating loop. 6) flame ( Bunsen burner) . 7) 1N hydrochloric acid (HCl) . 8) Two slides . 9) Plasma tube. 10) 3% Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) . 11) One unknown plate . 12) Crystal violet. 13) GramÃ¢â¬â¢s iodine . 14) Safranin. 15) Alcohol . ** Methods : An unknown labeled with number 8 was given out by the lab instructor. The goal at this point was to determine unknown gram positive vacteria. The procedures performed consisted of sterile technique in addition to being followed as stated in the referenced course laboratory manual by Matar (1) , unless otherwise noted.Not all of the tests were performed on every culture. However, there are as some of the tests were used only for gram (+) others were even more specific and used only for cocci bacteria . The first procedure have been done was to observe and record the morphology of the unknown sample. However, Gram stain should be done to be sure that unknown sample were gram positive and to identify cells morphology. After that biochemical tests were chosen for unknown identification . first of all was done the catalase test to differentiate between the two types of cocci bacteria ( Staphylococcus and Streptococcus ) .Since unknown 8 was determined to be Staphylococcus coagulase test in addition to the following tests were performed on this unknown : 1) Production of DNase on DNa se agar. 2) Blood agar with novobiocin (NB) test . 3) Mannitol fermentation on Mannitol Salt agar (MSA) . **Results : Colonies morphology on plate was given were as follows : circular, raised, smooth, opaque, white-yellow pigmens. After knowing that it was Gram positive cocci , a catalase test and coagulase test was done , in addition to different plates incubation ( Blood agar , DNase and MSA plates ) .The following table lists all of the tests were done : Test| Purpose| Reagents| Observations| Results| Gram stain| To determine The gram rxn ofBacterium. | Crystal violet,Iodine, Alcohol&Safranin. | Purple cocci| Gram positive Cocci . | Catalase test| To determine ifBact. Posses catalase enzyme. | 3% H2O2| Oxygen bubblesWere observed. | Positive catalaseTest. | Coagulase test| To detect thePresence of Ã¢â¬Å"Clumping factorÃ¢â¬ . | Plasma. | No clot was Formed. | Negative coagul-ase test . | DNase plate Test| To determine ifBact. producesDNase enzyme. | 1N HCl . Cloudy zone (notCle ar one ). | Negative . | Hemolysis test(blood agar). | To determine ifBacteria do Hemolysis. | None . | No visible Changes wereAround colonies. | Gamma hemolysis| Mannitol Fermentation. | To determineThe ability of Bacterium to ferment mannitol. | None . | Color changeFrom pink to Yellow . | Positive mannitolFermenter. | Novobiocin Test| To detect Sensitivity or Resistance of Bact to NB Antibiotic. | NB antibiotic . | No zone ofInhibition aroundDisc. | Resistant bact. | Flowchart Unknown 8 Gram stain Gram positive cocci Catalse test(positive)Positive Negative Staphylococcus aureus. Streptococcus pneumonia Staphylococcus epidermidis. Viridans Streptococci Staphylococcus saprophyticus S. pyogens S. agalactiae Coagulase and Dnase test (Negative) Enterococcus sp. Positive Negative Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus epidermidis. Staphylococcus saprophyticus Novobiocin test(Resistance)Sensitive Resistance Staphylococcus epidermidis. Staphylococcus saprophyticus MSA plate (Positive) Neg ative Positive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Staphylococcus saprophyticus Staphylococcus aureus. Blood agar plate(hemolytic test) (no hemolysis) Staphylococcus saprophyticus Unknown 8- S. saprophyticus **Discussion /Conclusion : It was concluded that Unknown 8 was S. saprophyticus . After applying Gram stain the gram positive bacteria was cocci in shape when viewed with a light microscope so a catalase test was performed.The bacteria was able to break down hydrogen peroxide upon its addition into water and gaseous oxygen which created bubbling and indicated a positive result. A sample was then inoculated on a mannitol salt agar plate. After incubation growth was present and the red media had turned yellow around the growth as a result of high levels of acid production. The data suggests that the gram positive bacteria was Staphylococci saprophyticus because it was gram positive, was catalase positive with the production of O, and was resistant to novobiocin disc.Staphylococcus saproph yticus is a strain of Staphylococcus bacteria. Approximately 25 percent of individuals carry this bacteria in the anal area, genitals, nose and mouth. People who walk barefoot are prone to acquire the bacteria from the floor. Staphylococcus may cause an infection when the bacteria enter a cut in any area of the body. These staph infections can range from boils to flesh-eating infections. The most common staph infection is Staphylococcus saprophyticus which commonly occurs in women.This staph is one of two bacteria which can invade the urinary tract. Approximately 20 percent of women who suffer from a urinary tract infection (UTI) will have another infection. **References : 1) Matar, Suzan. Medical microbiology Laboratory Manual. Jordan: University of Jordan publishing. 2) http://www. studymode. com/subjects/unknown-lab-report-on-gram-positive-bacteria-page1. html . 3) http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Gram-positive_bacteria . 4) http://www. ehow. com/about_5453276_staphylococcus-saprop hyticus-infection. html
Monday, September 16, 2019
The task of instructing adolescents about sex has been seen as the responsibility of the parents for many years. But, parent-child communication in sexual matters may be hindered by parental inhibitions or by various intergenerational tensions. Children often times do not receive information on sexual matters from their parents, at least initially. Due to sex related information available to children through mass media, the education board has deemed it necessary to evaluate and change sexual education. The course work has evolved drastically from the idea of teaching merely about sexual reproduction and focusing on abstinence. Rather, now it is important to deal with sex-related topics in the media through more sophisticated and comprehensive programs, deemed necessary to institute in the public school system. This of course has brought about several conflicting views about the course work within the program, raising social and ethical questions here and there. Although the idea of educating such young people about sex is viewed as strange, or as wrong, or even as immoral entirely, it is necessary for the well being of young people to be educated about these matters. Failing to teach young people about sex is like playing a Ã¢â¬ËfriendlyÃ¢â¬ game of Russian Roulette; the risks are vast, danger is unknown, and death may stare one in the face. Often times failing to teach properly the risks of something causes a lack of knowledge, almost like ignorance, especially regarding the subject of sex. Disastrous consequences can come about because of insignificant information about sex and sex relations. For example, thoughts of pregnancy surface with the lack of protection, but additionally, risks include the possibility of venereal disease spread, such as Gonorrhea, Syphilis, or HIV, in the absence of contraceptives. These serious circumstances are often taken lightly when in Ã¢â¬Ëthe moodÃ¢â¬ and one must be educated fairly well to understand the extreme importance of safety. This safety may include birth control or forms of contraceptives like male or female condoms, to ensure that one's health is never undermined at any cost. Lack of monogamy and smart sexual relations has made it imperative to take Ã¢â¬Ësafety precautionsÃ¢â¬ , as comical as it may sound, to ensure that oneÃ¢â¬ s health is not jeopardized. In similarity, Russian Roulette is a game of risks, much like sex. Although the stakes are rather different, sex of late and Russian Roulette alike are merely gambling with oneÃ¢â¬ s life. It seems it might be wiser to choose the latter as a means of destruction. After all, a life stricken with some disease associated with sex can have disastrous effects on one's physical body. For instance, John, an eighteen-year-old freshman at the University of Pennsylvania illustrates this perfectly. He was diagnosed two years ago with a virus he can never be rid of. Diagnosed at the age of sixteen with herpes simplex one, he lives a stressful life, often ridiculed because of constant outbreaks of sores, not only on his genitals, but also in and around his mouth. He dreads the next outbreak everyday, and wishes with every frequent recurrence he had taken the extra ten seconds to put on a condom, for if he had done so, life would be more pleasant (Ã¢â¬Å"FAQ About Genital HerpesÃ¢â¬ ). In addition, take for example Maria. Maria is a junior at Lake Springs High School. She too had a sexual encounter she wishes she could take back. One evening at a party, she drank a few drinks, and before she knew it, she was having intercourse with a man she hardly knew; she couldnÃ¢â¬ t even recall his name. Now, Maria endures extensive treatment weekly of AZT to hinder the debilitating effects HIV has on her body. She will grow weaker until the day she dies, all because of an unprotected sex act (Ã¢â¬Å"EducationÃ¢â¬ ). This information heightens the need for education regarding the proper care and safety precautions one must take when sexually active with another person. With the game of Russian Roulette, though, just one pull of the trigger and there are 1 in 6 chances, one swift blow. In addition, cases exist of Russian Roulette players who are uneventful in killing themselves, yet do serious damage to their brain, causing them to be quadriplegic. Teaching the dangers about sex is not an easy task. No easier is learning to accept consequences, but these must be taught during adolescence for it to be better embedded within oneÃ¢â¬ s thoughts. In addition, danger regarding sex coincides with the risks one takes when the decision to consummate a relationship is made. Teaching youth about the risk of pregnancy and the likelihood of contracting one of a vast array of diseases that range from completely curable with little discomfort, to long, drawn out, and debilitating incurable diseases one must endure the entirety of their life. One could say that a person walking down the street each day puts himself or herself in danger; that there are risks everywhere, and this need not be taught at school, for it is common knowledge. This may be true, but the idea that one can protect themselves from potential danger just by being informed should be basis enough to incorporate a more advanced sexual education course curriculum in the public schooling system. For instance, instead of focusing on abstinence, which is purely opinion, focus on the fact that by the age of 15, more than 18% of U. S. teens have experienced sexual encounters and that by the age of 20, 40% of Caucasian women have conceived at least one child (Ã¢â¬Å"Causes, Incidence, and Risk FactorsÃ¢â¬ ). Focus also on the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted disease; focus on the facts, focus on the statistics. Take Russian Roulette for comparison to these dangers associated with sex. Potential dangers are obvious; holding a gun to oneÃ¢â¬ s head and pulling the trigger, the danger seems quite substantial. This means of suicide can be compared to that of unprotected sex. One can illuminate the idea of unprotected sex as a way to commit suicide. A person not knowing the dangers of sex, and a person holding a gun up to oneÃ¢â¬ s head, not thinking that there could be a bullet within the pistol display the same ignorance. The lack of information or education about these two instances could be devastating. Knowing the dangers, but still taking the risk, sex seems a lot like the game of Russian Roulette. Proposals need to be made to fulfill both parents and adolescent concerns in addition to societal needs to incorporate a more advanced form of sexual education. Perhaps issuing more of a homework-based class via an Internet website could fulfill these concerns. The idea in mind would be to lessen a studentÃ¢â¬ s awkwardness of a classroom setting, yet still understanding the necessary material presented. This being beneficial because students are still learning about the subject matter and it would increase a parentÃ¢â¬ s morale about this course matter, for their children are learning about sex within their home rather than in a classroom, where sexual tensions may be embarrassing. Another proposal is to include the curriculum within already established courses. Academics such as English and History can hold intimate classroom conversation about this subject matter relevant to course curriculum. This means of incorporating the sexual education material within required classes would guarantee that sexual education be at least introduced to these younger individuals. It is not necessarily automatic that one will contract a venereal or sexually transmitted disease, neither is it definite that when the trigger is pulled, the bullet will come raging through for a short journey through the skull. The risks are there though; the danger is there. Without an education to outline these risks and dangers, the results a lack of education would be devastating to society.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant is a new restaurant company in its formative stages and is being organized in order to take advantage for the lack of significant number of product lines that present restaurants in the United States do not have at present days.Furthermore, with the opportunity to offer cheaper, variety of high quality food services to its target customers, HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant plans to dominate the restaurant industry in the United States. With the present unstable condition of the U.S. economy many consumers become price conscious and started searching for cheaper but high quality goods and services in the market.With this present market trend and behavior of American consumers, HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant expects to become more profitable relative to the present restaurants in the market through its cheap and vast variety of great tasting quality foods. Furthermore, in order to secure the success of HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant in the market, it plans to launch fi ve store branches every year so as to increase its market share faster.With HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant skilled chefs and crew as well as staffs, it plans to provide extra ordinary experience to its customers by giving them the combination of highest quality of food and services. HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant managementÃ¢â¬â¢s value on the satisfaction of their customers would serves as the pillar of their success.The classy interior design of HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant would give relaxing experience to its customers and perfect for family gathering, business meetings, or even a place where peers could meet and make bond with one another.These unique qualities of Herrick Restaurant would give it enough room to easily out-perform its competitors in the market and at the same time make large amount of profit despite of the present unstable condition of the U.S. economy. It is being expected that after the next five years, Herrick Restaurant would start entering the international mark et and operate on many countries to further expand its horizon in the restaurant industry.Herrick RestaurantÃ¢â¬â¢s ObjectiveHire high skilled staff and the best Chefs in the culinary world through high salary payments and more employee benefits relative to other restaurants in the market To have 40 percent market share in the next 5 years operation of the restaurant. Double its revenue by the end of 2009.To out-perform its competitors in the market in terms of sales volume and profits annually. Become the top restaurant in the U.S. market in 2016. Operate internationally by 2013 to further expand the market and market share of the company. To add 5 or more restaurants in the U.S. market every year to support high growth for the company. Mission of HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s RestaurantHerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant has a mission of providing cheaper, vast variety of great-tasting-high-quality dishes plus superb services from its staffs to provide extra ordinary experiences to its target custom ers. All of our efforts and strategies will point towards attaining higher customer satisfaction and improving the skills of our Chefs, crew, and staffs.This premium that our management is giving to our target customers would serve as its main avenue towards being the top restaurant in the U.S. restaurant industry and have impressive growth in terms of profit and/or sales volume.Furthermore, it is not only great service and food quality that we offer to our target customers but also providing relaxing environment and atmosphere that will suit people from different walks of life while inside our store. In the end, this mission of ours will guide us in future decision making processes and would serve as the pillar of many strategies of the company towards the attainment of market success and dominance.Restaurant Industry OverviewRestaurant industry has been one of the most profitable and stable industries in the American market for the past years. This is the main reason why the owner s of HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurants decided to establish a restaurant business than any other possible business venture in the market.The restaurant industry in the United States is being expected to have a sales equivalent to 558 billion USD this year and has been behaving positively since 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s and to have a sales growth equal to 4.4 percent in 2008 (Restaurant.org, 2007).Eating establishment is one of the types of restaurants that provide the highest sales projections for 2008 where HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant is classified. This only means that this year is a Ã¢â¬Å"good yearÃ¢â¬ for the officials of HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant to become aggressive on its expansion programs in the market.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
With reference to your selected region; locate and account for the emergence of a core, of relative wealth and a periphery of relative poverty. Discuss the relationship between the core and periphery, and note why the core is over-heating. What strategies have been initiated to tackle these regional inequalities? Brazil is the largest of the Latin American countries, located in the South American continent. Brazil's unequal development has given rise to two areas of spatial inequality. These are called the Core and the Periphery. The core is a relatively wealthy area, and is seen as the industrial hub of economics and industry. The Periphery however is less economically developed, and is characterised by a declining or stagnant economy. This prominent division has been caused by many reasons. The Core's success has resulted in it overheating, and outward migration has resulted in the periphery's problems getting worse. Government Strategies were then designed to improve the spread of development across Brazil. John Friedmann's model, shown above, shows us how Brazil has developed and its inequalities. The Core is in the South East of Brazil and is an area of industry, with high levels of technology, capital and investment. Unlike the North the South is fortunate to have a warm, temperate climate with a distinct cooler season along the coast. Development is easier in these Southern conditions, compared to the difficult climates of areas such as Sertio, in the North, where there are frequent droughts. Also the Core's location is beneficial too, being near the coast; large ports are possible and ports such as Santos in Sio Paulo are very important for importing and exporting for Brazil. These ports are built close to mineral resources and industry, for products to be exported. The core is home to huge reserves of iron and sizeable reserves of gold and gemstones, including emerald, topaz and aquamarine. These are mainly found in Minas Gerais, and rich minerals such as these are very beneficial to an area and they bring great revenue. Sio Paulo, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro are three cities that make up Brazil's industrial triangle, which is the centre of its industry. Sio Paulo is home to approximately one-third of the Brazilian GDP, with its economy based on machinery and automobile industry. Rio de Janeiro had the second largest economy after Sio Paulo and is home to the country's largest bank Ã¢â¬â Banco de Brazil. Belo Horizonte has become an international reference in information technology and Biotechnology. The Core has a good infrastructure, with efficient roads and railways that attract development. There is a large market for consumer goods and services, with a thriving work force, created by the large population. The South East of Brazil was the centre of trade in the country's colonial history too. Brazil was a Portuguese colony for over 300 years and the Portuguese exploited the land and exported minerals to Europe. The Southeast of the country was their centre of trade, so ports began to grow to export raw materials e. g. Santos and Rio de Janeiro. This was the start of the core's advanced development that left the peripheral areas behind in development. Foreign investment has accelerated the Core's development, with Germany as an example. Germany has invested $10 billion in Brazil, as 15% of its total foreign investment. There are now 1,024 German companies present in Brazil. Now German executives are being replaced by Brazilians to take over and run the companies. This will benefit the country even further, as its people become wealthier. As well as Germany, the united States have invested too, and Sio Paulo is considered to headquarter more American Companies than any other city outside of the U. S. The Car Industry has been a catalyst for development. With Ford, General Motors and VW in Brazil, hundreds of component suppliers have been attracted. Near to VW's plant for bus and trucks, is Volta Redonda, Brazil's main steel industry. This thrives from the car industry in Brazil and brings 1800 more jobs and $250 million of investment to Brazil. The Periphery is quiet different, located in the Centre West of Brazil. The Peripheral areas often suffer from declining industries, creating a negative image, which is unfavourable to new development in relation to the core. Low productivity and reduced demand for minerals has left the periphery less favourable in comparison with the core. Young and ambitious workers often leave the periphery to move the core, where there are greater job opportunities. This adds to the problems that the periphery faces, with a reduced work force and an aging population. The North has never been prosperous and has always been thinly populated. The development of Brazil's peripheral region has been stunted by its many problems. Environmentally, the peripheral areas in the North- East suffer epic droughts. This area is struck by mild droughts every 3years and a severe one every 12. Any remaining water is unsafe to drink and cholera strikes in epidemics. The temperatures through the dry season can reach 42iC and the temperatures and dry conditions make development very difficult and slow. The land available for growing crops is scarce and the soil is generally poor, thus meaning farmers that are dependant on one crop can't grow it, are struggle for food for their livestock. The people often have no or little education and can only get jobs in unskilled sectors and industry is mainly in agriculture. Most people are dependant on cottage industries and specific crops. The Northeast is the poorest region of Brazil, with the worst HDI rates of the country, mainly in the rural areas, which suffer from long periods without rain. This is somewhat ironic since the Northeast, during Brazil's colonial era when sugar production was higher, was the most prosperous region in all of South America. Health care is very bad, malnutrition is common in people living in these areas and child labor is a concern, as is child prostitution in major cities. Prostitution in the major cities has become an enormous problem, caused largely by the low Brazilian minimum wage as well as sexual tourism. In contrast to the situation occurring in the other Brazilian regions where social problems are worse in bigger cities, social problems in the Northeast regions are worse in the rural and small communities of the interior, lessening in bigger cities near the coast. With a lack of mineral resources and a poor infrastructure the Northeast of Brazil's development was very slow, especially with little energy resource to aid it. The quality of life in the Peripheral areas was low and the higher wages in the core appear much more favourable. The Core has its Problems too, overcrowding of people and competition for business, resulted in the core overheating. People move to the Southeast to improve their quality of life. However so many people now live and work in the big cities of the core that this begins to create its own problems. Since not enough housing can be provided for all these people or indeed afforded, people make their homes on unreclaimed public land. This resulted in a high occurrence of Shanty Towns or Favelas. These areas of irregular and poor quality housing are often crowded onto hillsides. Landslides in such areas, caused primarily by heavy rainfall but worsened by deforestation, are frequent. In recent decades, favelas have been troubled by drug-related crime and gang warfare. There are rumors that common social codes in favelas forbid residents from engaging in criminal activity while inside their own favela. Favelas are often considered a disgrace and an eyesore for local people within Brazil. The overcrowding caused by in-migration in the cities results in congestion and air pollution. This is worsened by the industrial pollution from manufacturing companies and from petrochemicals. Competition from other companies has resulted in closures of existing ones, meaning jobs are lost. Also wage rate were seen to be lower elsewhere so some businesses have chosen to move, to pay lower rates. The port of Santos had noticeably higher holding charges than other major ports; commerce was lost here as companies left. Under Unemployment is an issue in Brazil, this is where people hold jobs that don't contribute to the country's productivity. These are jobs in the informal sector such as, camelos, street vendors and prostitution. The minimum Monthly wage is R$200, although about 30million people in Brazil are not even making that much. The Brazilian government designed strategies to spread development across Brazil, with the Amazon region and the Northeast as the main problem areas. To begin the alterations a nationwide transport network was built, this included the Amazonian Highway. This re-encouraged mining and other economic activities to develop in the Amazon region. Two main approaches were used to tackle regional differences. These were the top-down and the bottom-up approaches. The top down approach is central around the government's decisions and doesn't really involve the people. Governments often concentrate their development resources in Growth poles, such as Brasilia and Recife, with the hope that economic growth will take place and spread to surrounding areas. Also growth corridors are often designated, that are designed to encourage industrial investment. These are often positioned along major roads that connect major urban areas and provide good access. In the Northeast there has now been heavy investment from new industries using power from the Sao Francisco River and the capital city was moved from Rio de Janeiro to a new city Brasilia. These are Top-down approaches, where government decisions try to overcome the disparity between the rich and the poor. Bottom-up approaches are centered on the people, helping them to help themselves. Local communities are consulted about the best ways to improve their quality of life, and they together plan the best methods. The government offered incentives to encourage businesses like Grendene to move away from the core. In this case the shoe company Grendene, worth $100billion, moved to the North East. The Capital of Brazil used to be Rio de Janeiro but in 1960 the Brazilian government decided to build a new capital inland, Brasilia, in an effort to develop the interior of Brazil. Brasilia acted like a magnet and changed migration patterns, and encouraged economic development in different areas. Many specific strategies were also implemented. Two regional development agencies were set up in 1959 called SUDENE and SUDAM, and they were responsible for managing the economic and social development of the country. SUDENE in the Northeast and SUDAM in the North; organized programmes such as; road building, the installation of power stations, building schools and developing ports. The work of SUDENE linked with the Northeastern pact of 1996 many improvements were made. The infrastructure in terms of irrigation, energy supply, transport and communications were improved. Canals were formed to link up rivers, dams were built and the drinking water was improved. Also efforts were made to modernise agriculture, to promote subsistence farming and cottage industry, to avoid the worst effects of droughts. Beer brewing plants were moved from Rio de Janeiro to Ceari, the Antarctica and Kaiser breweries created new jobs and revenue. This followed other industries moving to the northeast to lower labour costs and tax breaks. Also the state Maranhao has begun to attract companies from Taiwan, with and expected benefit of $1 billion. This move is to find cheaper labour and the abundance of raw materials in the area. Brazil now has a good tourism industry set up, with visitors coming to the beautiful locations along the north east coasts especially. Although progress has certainly been made, the regional programmes have not lived up to their entire expectations. Sustainable growth wasn't always considered and tax incentives made quick short term solutions. Further development in the Northern areas of Brazil has meant huge areas of forest land have been cleared under the grounds of land improvement, but deforestation is posing a larger threat. Global climate change has resulted in stricter rules, which could hinder their progress. The increasing debt of the country has meant that there is less and less capital available for investment. The gap between the core and the peripheral regions in Brazil has certain closed a little but there is certainly more to be done.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Challenges Facing Multinational Organizations Transferring Knowledge Between Subsidiaries Management Essay
Challenges Facing Multinational Organizations Transferring Knowledge Between Subsidiaries Management Essay Multinational organizations (MNCs) have presented in academic debate since the globalization and intensified transnational competition has led to the introduction of a variety of new organizational practices. As the organizations expand globally, their organizational structures and behavior tend to become increasingly more complex. Especially for MNCs, although the attention of cost management may no longer directly affect company performance, the strategies of MNCs involve other managerial skills such as an interest in developing organizational structures and highly performing employees (Jacoby 2005; Dobbin 2005). Moreover, those firms that compete in the global marketplace typically face several types of competitive pressures, cost reductions and local responsiveness, conflicting demands on the MNCs. Making global strategies should emphasize how the MNC can gain competitive advantages through market efficient in order to achieve its goal. Those advantages may come from using resou rces endowments, economies of scale, information and communication technologies (ICT), allocation of resources, training and learning programs from human resources management, and productive capacity (Malnight 1996). By achieving those advantages MNC can managerially well of their flexibility by altering their resource configuration and how they structures and manages in global market (Bartlett Porter 1986; Prahalad Myerson 1982). The second factor is multiculturalism. It refers to the extent of supply and demand factors those diverse cultural backgrounds and coordinates the business activities in order to achieve competitive advantages and productive efficiency.
Love - Term Paper Example It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the love that I thought it would be. At that point I realized that they were talking about artistic love. The love that an artist holds for what he sees and feels like capturing the moment using his abilities, no matter how he does it. Ã¢â¬Å"It has been said that art is a tryst, for in the joy of it maker and beholder meet.Ã¢â¬ Kojiro Tomita. And at the same point I was forced to think of Eros as a materialistic lover. What if he loved what was on the outside and not on the inside. And there I thought of him as selfish. Because I feel that outer beauty has nothing to do with what is inside. It is just like loving a thing because it is a pleasure to the eye, a luxury and nothing more, just like love for materialistic things. Ã¢â¬Å"Contentment is natural wealth, luxury is artificial beauty.Ã¢â¬ Socrates. I read further then and when I read that Eros is neither a god nor a man, he is not mortal and neither immortal but a Ã¢â¬Ëhalf-way spiritÃ¢â¬â¢, one sugge stion came to my mind, Ã¢â¬Ëmaybe he is an angelÃ¢â¬â¢. ... These were to define Eros. Eros as an angel must have loved something else entirely. And I realized I had got it all wrong. Reading further I found out the Eros was the son of gods of craft and poverty which must mean that he knew both the states of having everything you wanted and then losing everything you had. He must not have experienced the feelings in between and when I moved on further it was revealed. The writing showed exactly what I had thought. Eros was stuck in between ignorance and wisdom. And wisdom is to know better. Being the definition of love for beauty, at a personal level, Eros loved beauty too. In an entirely different way, he had love for wisdom, love for knowledge that would enable him to see things in a beautiful manner. Ã¢â¬Å"The cave you fear to enter holds the treasures you seek.Ã¢â¬ Joseph Campbell. Moving forward, the text was defining Eros as we like to use it. Eros or love can be on two different levels, spiritual love or physical love. The images I had in mind when reading this were really different from each other. The first one held a bright light to it, hard to tell of what but maybe of spirituality, of connecting or dedicating yourself to the higher powers. The second one gave me an image of affection; two people, loving each other, holding each other in their arms. And the text mentioned that physical love resulted as mortal children and at that point I got to thinking that spiritual love is not only the love for higher powers or amidst. What do we call the love we hold for elders, our parents or siblings? And the text made me realize that such love was also a form of spiritual love. Ã¢â¬Å"Darkness cannot drive out darkness only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate only love can do that.Ã¢â¬ Martin
Thursday, September 12, 2019
There are myths surrounding creativity. The intangible nature of creativity does not lend itself to easy definition - Essay Example It takes place generally when the recent product plan is really implemented (Thompson, 1965). The author favours this definition because it makes creativity or innovation tangible as well as measurable relatively than a theoretical concept. In organization, innovation is observed as a relating process consisting of different stages. First stage is expressed as the commencement stage where the new proposal is introduced, authorized, and established for adoption. Next stage is described as the implementation phase which comprises of the changes in the actual management that happens in the company, as the modernization is placed into operation (Rogers, 1983). The aim of the paper is to explain the hypothesis of different models and theories on innovation and to focus on the fact that how innovation is important for the organization. This model is projected by Eric Von Hippel, which explains the type of innovation whereby the users originates the changes as well as carry out distribution and production. This model could also be relevant to the physical products. Innovation is reasonably viable to handle without a producer if three circumstances are satisfied: the continuation of an inducement for the users to create or innovate; the continuation of an incentive in order to disclose innovations; and the probability to allocate innovations at the low cost. This model describes interesting patterns of innovation that have possibly existed in certain areas but have not been observed until now by the specialists of innovation (Haddon, 2006). It proposed that the manufacture as innovator postulation is wrong; a new means to classify investors has been planned. It explains that the innovation of product could initiate from any one of the three distinct sources i.e. users, producers and suppliers; who are also considere d as innovators (Edquist, Hommen and Tsipouri, 2000). The main consequence is that the Ã¢â¬Ëdistributed innovation procedureÃ¢â¬â¢
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Assignment - Essay Example However, these programs cannot eliminate food insecurity completely. This work represents the project, including the number of strategies, which will help to reduce the rate of food insecurity in the USA. The first measure, which must be included in the program, is an annual monitoring of the state of food security. The forecast of socio-economic development of the country should contain the current and medium-term balance of production and the consumption of basic foodstuffs. This step will give the government an opportunity to predict the gabs in the process of development of the food market and take steps for their elimination. The second measure includes the introduction of the analysis of price and food proportions into the practice of the government in order to increase the volume of agricultural products, raise the investment attractiveness of the industry, ensure its financial sustainability and profitability. An important problem of food security remains the quality of food. The poor areas of the USA are often imported with the products, which are of low quality and do harm to human health. Considering this issue, it is necessary to organize a system of quality control of the imported products for the whole technological chain. The particular attention should be paid to the turnover of raw materials and food products with the high level of genetically modified sources. It is necessary to introduce the measures for stimulation and certification of eco products. At the state level, the government should actively promote healthy nutrition policy. The next measure concerns the building of a strong nutrition safety net. Even those people, who have a good level of income, can face financial troubles, caused by seasonal unprofitability, family conditions and so forth. In this case, it is important for them to be supported by the state authorities by means of the available access to the USDAÃ¢â¬â¢s assistance
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
To what ExtenT do 'Reverse Burdens' Whittle down the Rule in Woolmington v DPP - Essay Example This paper demonstrates how reverse burdens have whittled down the presumption of innocence and how reverse burdens are justified in appropriate cases. I. The Presumption of Innocence All persons accused of a criminal offence are presumed innocent. The presumption of innocence is codified by Article 6(2) of the ECHR. Article 6(2) which is prefaced by a right to fair trial within a reasonable time,4 provides for the presumption of innocence until guild is proven Ã¢â¬Å"according to lawÃ¢â¬ .5By virtue of the Human Rights Act 1998, the ECHR is a part of the British law and all national statutes must be read and interpreted in such a way as to be compatible with the ECHR.6 The presumption of innocence means that the prosecution must prove the essential elements of the alleged offence. As BlackstoneÃ¢â¬â¢s Criminal Practice notes: The phrase Ã¢â¬Ëthe presumption of innocenceÃ¢â¬â¢ is often used as a convenient abbreviation of the common-law rule that, generally speaking, the pros ecution bears the burden of proving all the elements in the offence necessary to establish guilt.7 Specifically, the prosecution must prove that the defendant committed the act constituting the offense (actus reus) and had the Ã¢â¬Å"requisite state of mindÃ¢â¬ (mens rea).8 The common law rule was stated by Lord Sankey in Woolmington v DPP. In the case, the defendant was convicted of murdering his wife as a result of shooting. The defendant argued that the gun was discharged accidentally. The trial judge ruled that the defendant bore the burden of proving that he lacked the necessary mens rea. Upon appeal, the House of Lords, allowing the appeal ruled that in criminal trials, the common law rule was that the burden of proof showing guilt beyond a reasonable doubt resided with the prosecution.9 Therefore the presumption of innocence is not lost until such time as the prosecution discharges the burden of proof beyond a reasonable. This is a primary requisite for a fair trial pursua nt to Article 6 of the ECHR.10 It was held in McIntosh v Lord Advocate11 that a difficult paradox is created by the presumption of innocence and the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in ensuring that the guilty are convicte
Monday, September 9, 2019
Analysis of the Business Environment - Essay Example The daring steps in the formulation of the monetary policy have been taken in order to contain the deflation in the country. Despite the continuous efforts of the government the yield of the bonds issued by the government of Japan has remained more or less static and low. On the other hand the net public debt of the economy of Japan is as high as 134 % of the GDP. This is one of the highest levels of public debt out of the advanced economies of the world. In such a situation the Abenomics policies of 2013 to bring about a surge in the growth rate of the country and to bring about inflation in the country is considered to be having a lot of uncertainty and is dependent on the proper implementation of the strategies. This report is an analysis of the key measures under the policies, the main objectives as well as the long term implications of the policy. Scholarly resources have been consulted extensively in order to conduct the research and to draw appropriate inferences. Discussion B ackground of the Japanese economy In the post world war period Japan experienced spectacular growth of the economy. During the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s the average rate of the economy had been 10%, 5% and 4% respectively. The country moved to being one of the advanced economies. However, Japan witnessed a burst in the assets bubble in the early 1990s. There was an economic slowdown which resulted in a high level of unemployment in the country. Adding to this there was a huge amount of deficit in the budget which occurred due to the ventures of the government to finance the projects related to public works in the country. However the stagnation in the economy could in no way be stimulated by the different infrastructure projects. In order to battle such an economic situation the Japanese government took policy measures that would take out the speculative part of the surplus liquidity from the stock markets as well as the real estate markets. These policies led the country into a phase of intensive deflation during the phase of 1990 to 2004 (Arslanalp and Lam, 2013, pp. 12-16). Due to the policies the economy recovered once again but the deflation still persisted. At the time of the financial crisis which had hit almost all the countries of the world, Japan experienced a loss in the level of GDP by 0.7% in the year 2008 and about 5.2% in the year 2009. On the other hand the growth rate of GDP of the country was negative in 2009. The volume of international trade in the country also suffered a decline of 27%. Key policies under Abenomics The policies under Abenomics comprise of mainly three strategies which are better known as the Ã¢â¬Å"three arrowsÃ¢â¬ (Itoh, 2013, pp. 2-3). The three pillars are Bold monetary policy Flexibility in the Fiscal Policy Strategy to induce growth The Prime Minister intended to take a bold monetary policy through the introduction of quantitative easing as well as increasing the level of spending on the public expenditure along with the attempt to devalue yen. The Bank of Japan intended to undertake a strategy of Quantitative Easing through this policy. The bank would be buying assets from the open market worth $ 1.4 trillion so that the money
Sunday, September 8, 2019
The Argument for Gay Marriage - Essay Example This paper highlights that many wars are being fought which render more dead bodies than politically favorable results. The concept of two individuals choosing to solidify their commitment to one another, seems not only valid but also, refreshing considering all the hate that occupies the human race. Further more, any type of government should never be permitted to dictate whom should or should not be permitted to marry whom. Considering that the term Ã¢â¬Å"human rightsÃ¢â¬ implies an entire species as opposed to certain facets of a species, there is no way that one group of individuals should be permitted to socially exclude another group of individuals from sharing in rights that should be afforded to all humans equally without regard to sex, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation or economic means. The very same argument which states that gays should not be allowed to be married, is virtually synonymous with the one used by white supremacists in the time of slavery and segreg ation, to maintain the institution of slavery. During the time of slavery in America, African American s were not permitted to vote, own land, patronize establishments or hold public office. It was stated during these times that blacks were Ã¢â¬Å"not whiteÃ¢â¬ or were lesser people than those who were white. This is no different from the ideology behind Ã¢â¬Å"protecting the sanctity of marriageÃ¢â¬ which is perpetuated by the conservative republican party. The only difference is that heterosexuality is considered the Ã¢â¬Å"normÃ¢â¬ while homosexuality is considered to be a lesser condition of human sexuality. This is just another way of socially isolating a group of individuals and thereby limiting the rights of said individuals. There is no moral grounds for this and any argument which claims to establish such grounds, is an obtuse attempt at superiority and dominance over other human beings.
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Love Medicine Research - Essay Example At the same time it assures a reader about the fact that love is the most important aspect of life to identify and relish the felling of fulfillment as human beings. The element of hope is prevalent in the story and the optimism that has been reflected in the story has been churned from interaction between the characters as well as through their actions. Lipsha MorrisseyÃ¢â¬â¢s life, since his birth, was never a fairy tale story and he has been saved from her mother who wanted to kill him. In that way he has never been lucky enough to feel the charm of parental love. However under the guardianship of Grandma and Grandpa Kashpaw he realized that love and that love is one of the main sources for him to make him feel that he is complete as a human being. As Grandpa Kashpaw achieved several things within his span of life always had a strong influence over Lipsha. However, since GrandpaÃ¢â¬â¢s mind was gradually failing it stated all the problems and conflicts but he never seemed to have any worry about that thing and it seems as if welcomed it, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m getting into my second childhood.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I been chosen for it. I couldnÃ¢â¬â ¢t say no.Ã¢â¬ (Erdrich, 109) Though both Grandma and Grandpa never escaped from the bond of their mutual love but during his momentary fit of lunacy his elopement with Lulu Lamartine has never been appreciated by Grandma. Consequently, Lipsha was assigned with the responsibility to prepare a love medicine. (Erdrich, 116) In the context of preparing love medicine for both of them we not only see dominance of hope in LipshaÃ¢â¬â¢s quest but at the same time conspicuous elements of Native American rituals have also been explicitly presented by the narrator. Presentation of such ritualistic elements has intentionally been introduced by the author to heighten the element of optimism in the story. Lipsha have always felt that without the mutual love both from
Friday, September 6, 2019
Change and the Management of Change Essay Change Management Planning, Implementing, controlling, and reviewing the movement of an organization from its current state to a new one Causes of Change External Incremental (Evolutionary) Ã¢â¬ ¢Occurs slowly over time (fuel-efficient cars) Dramatic (Revolutionary) Ã¢â¬ ¢Can cause many problems especially if unexpected Ã¢â¬ ¢Might lead to total rethink of operation of organization oBusiness Process Re-Engineering Business Process Re-EngineeringFundamentally rethinking and redesigning the processes of a business to achieve a dramatic improvement in performance Globalization-Increasing interdependence for countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ economies through free trade and multinational company investment Ã¢â¬ ¢New opportunities to sell products in other countries Ã¢â¬ ¢Increased competition from products made more cheaply in other countries-often by multinationals Ã¢â¬ ¢Use either pan-global marketing for localization strategies Ã¢â¬ ¢Achieve and try to maintain a competitive advantage Technological Advances-Leading to new products and new processes Ã¢â¬ ¢Products: new computer games, iPods and iPhones, hybrid-powered cars. Ã¢â¬ ¢Processes: robots in production; computer assisted design (CAD) in design offices and computer systems for stock control. Ã¢â¬ ¢Staff retraining Ã¢â¬ ¢Purchase of new equipment Ã¢â¬ ¢Additions to product portfolio-Other products may be dropped Ã¢â¬ ¢Need for quicker product development which may require new organizational structures and teams Macro-Economic Change- Fiscal Policy, Interest Rates, Business CycleÃ¢â¬ ¢Changes in consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ disposable incomes-and demand patterns that result from this Ã¢â¬ ¢Boom or recession conditions-need for extra capacity or rationalism Ã¢â¬ ¢Need for flexible production systems (staff flexibility) to cope with demand changes Ã¢â¬ ¢Explain need for extra capacity or need to rationalize Ã¢â¬ ¢Deal with staff cutbacks in way that encourages staff who remain to accept change Legal Changes Ã¢â¬ ¢Changes to what can be sold Ã¢â¬ ¢Working hours and conditions Ã¢â¬ ¢Staff training on company policy Ã¢â¬ ¢Flexible working hours and practices CompetitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ Actions Ã¢â¬ ¢New products Ã¢â¬ ¢Lower prices Ã¢â¬ ¢Higher promotional budgetsÃ¢â¬ ¢Encourage new ideas from staff Ã¢â¬ ¢Increase efficiency by staff accepting need to change production methods Ã¢â¬ ¢Ensure resources available to meet challenge Environmental Factors Ã¢â¬ ¢Increase green consumerism Ã¢â¬ ¢Increasing concern about industryÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to climate change Ã¢â¬ ¢Social and environmental audits supported by strategic changes (recycle packaging) Internal Organizational Changes Ã¢â¬ ¢Delayering* Ã¢â¬ ¢Matrix structure** replaces hierarchicalÃ º Ã¢â¬ ¢Retraining of less senior staff to accept more responsibility Ã¢â¬ ¢Job security Ã¢â¬ ¢Retraining staff in teamwork and project management Relocation Ã¢â¬ ¢Moving operations to another region/country Ã¢â¬ ¢Redundancy schemes for workers who lose their jobs Ã¢â¬ ¢Grants for those willing to move Cutting Costs To Improve Competitiveness Ã¢â¬ ¢Capital-intensive rather that labour-intensive methods Ã¢â¬ ¢Rationalisation of operations Ã¢â¬ ¢Retraining staff to operate advanced tech. Ã¢â¬ ¢Redundancy schemes for workers who lose their jobs Ã¢â¬ ¢Flexible employment contracts and working practices *DelayeringRemoval of one or more of the levels of hierarchy from an organizational structure **Matrix StructureAn organizational structure that creates project teams that cut across traditional functional departments Ã ° Level of Hierarchy A stage of the organisational structure atÃ which the personnel on it have equal status and authority Factors Causing Resistance to Change Ã¢â¬ ¢Fear of Unknown (Uncertainty) Ã¢â¬ ¢Fear of Failure (Skills/Abilities beyond workerÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities) Ã¢â¬ ¢Losing Something of Value (Income, Status, Job Security) Ã¢â¬ ¢False Beliefs (Some convince themselves current system will work to avoid risks) Ã¢â¬ ¢Lack of Trust (Past experiences between workers and managers) Ã¢â¬ ¢Inertia (Might have to work harder) Strategies to Reduce Impact of/Resistance to Change Change Management Force-Field AnalysisAn analytical process used to map the opposing forces within an environment (such as a business) where change is taking place 1.Outline proposal for change 2.List forces for and against change 3.Assign estimated score for each force Ã¢â¬ ¢Weighs importance of forces Ã¢â¬ ¢Helps identify who is most likely impacted by change Ã¢â¬ ¢How to strengthen forces supporting decision and reduce forces against it Ã¢â¬ ¢Can implement leadership style that reduces opposition and resistance to change Project ChampionA person assigned to support and drive a project forward. Their role is to explain the benefits of change and assist and support the team putting change into practice Project GroupsCreated by an organisation to address a problem that requires input from different specialists Promote Change 1.Establish a sense of urgency. 2.Create an effective project team to lead the change. 3.Develop a vision and a strategy for change. 4.Communicate this change vision. 5.Empower people to take action. 6.Generate short-term gains from change that benefit as many people as possible. 7.Consolidate these gains and produce even more change. 8.Build change into the culture of the organisation so that it becomes a natural process.